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Tents: specifications, types
Classic tourist tents are divided into three main varieties: expeditionary, trekking and camping. In addition, on the market you can find tents for the beach, for fishing(including carp tents) and for shower / toilet, models like "umbrella", as well as varieties of tents: camping and tent tents. Here is a more detailed description of each of these varieties:
— Expeditionary. The most advanced type of camping tents. Expeditionary models can be used in any season, including winter, they are distinguished by high strength, reliability and maximum protection against cold, snow, wind, etc., while such properties are often combined with extremely low weight. As the name implies, these tents are designed mainly for long-distance expeditions, winter hiking, high-mountain climbing and other similar applications. But it hardly makes sense to purchase such a model for relatively simple tasks: expeditionary equipment is very expensive.
— Tracking. Tents designed primarily for ease of use on long hiking and cycling trips. Accordingly, the key features of such models are rather high reliability and resistance to adverse conditions (albeit les...s than that of expeditionary equipment), a relatively low level of comfort, as well as low weight, in most models not exceeding 6 kg. Heavier tents are usually classified as trekking tents if they have the simplest possible design, and the weight is primarily due to the large capacity and/or increased reliability of the materials. In general, it is worth paying attention to this variety in cases where the equipment is planned to be carried “on oneself” often and for a long time; camping tents are better suited for staying in one place permanently (see below).
— Camping. Tents designed primarily for comfort while staying in one place all the time. They differ from tracking models in more extensive additional features (although a specific set of such features may differ from product to product), seasonality (most of them are not designed for winter), and also, in general, greater weight. So, it is customary to refer to camping tents weighing more than 6 kg; lighter models may also be included in this category if they have the characteristic features of camping equipment: additional features designed to increase comfort levels and/or relatively simple materials that are not designed for particularly adverse conditions. In general, tents of this type are perfect for overnight picnics, outdoor festivals, etc.
— Tent for fishing. Products for winter ice fishing; they are designed for one, maximum two people in a sitting position and most often either do not have a bottom at all, or they have special openings in the bottom so that the structure can be installed directly above the hole.
— Carp tent. Models intended mainly for lovers of carp fishing. Such fishing (especially at competitions) can last for days without interruption, and special equipment is used for it — including the so-called carp folding beds, which are a special kind of tourist furniture. Thus, awnings for carp fishing are large in size, allowing you to easily install one or even several folding beds inside. And by design, most of these products are no longer closer to awnings, but to full-fledged tourist tents: they can be used not only as canopies, but also as full-fledged closed shelters, including for overnight stays.
— For a shower/toilet. Tents designed exclusively for equipping camp showers or toilets; they are not designed for other purposes. Usually they are vertical structures without a bottom — a kind of cabin for one person. The height of such a booth is usually chosen so that an adult can stand inside without much difficulty (in some models, the height exceeds 2 m).
— Beach tent. Tents designed to protect from the sun's rays on the beaches, during picnics, etc. Most of these products are structures that are open on one or even several sides, and are designed for a seated or recumbent placement of a person. There are also models equipped with a valve that allows you to completely close the internal volume; this can be useful, for example, for changing clothes on the beach, or for protection from a short rain. However, even such models are designed mainly for open use — moreover, the valve, being unfastened, fits in front of the entrance and plays the role of an addition to the tent's own bottom.
— Umbrella tent. Tents, the design of which resembles an oversized umbrella. When unfolded, such a tent consists of a dome, in which a special frame is built, and a canopy hanging from the edges of the dome; while the layout of the "umbrellas" may be different. So, in some models, the dome is located on a rather high vertical leg-support, and in the standard position, the height of the canopy is the same on all sides. In terms of application, such models are closest to awnings-tents (see above), and by turning up the canopy, you can turn the product into a classic beach umbrella. In others, the dome is installed obliquely and rests on the ground with one edge, covering part of the space on the sides, and the remaining space closes the canopy; such designs are more like traditional tents. Anyway, the main advantage of umbrella tents is the ease of installation and folding: such operations are not much more complicated than handling an ordinary umbrella, and even a beginner can handle them without much difficulty. On the other hand, when assembled, such products are rather bulky, and the complexity of the design affects the cost and overall reliability. Therefore, there are few such models nowadays.
— Tent tent. There are two main types of awnings. The first is an enlarged and lightweight analogue of more traditional tourist tents. The height of such a product, usually, allows you to stand in it, the bottom in the structure may be completely absent, the walls are single-layer, and most of their area is usually occupied by “windows” made of mosquito nets (although in some models it is possible to close these windows with external “curtains”). » made of dense material). Such an awning can be useful, for example, for short trips to nature, or as an overnight stay in warm summer weather.
Another kind of awnings-tents can be conditionally called "household". Such structures are intended primarily for the organization of one or another working space: retail outlets, exhibition and promotional stands, field cafes and canteens, administrative areas at public events, first-aid posts, etc. Among such tents there are quite large structures that can accommodate 10 – 20 people, or even more; such models, usually, have solid walls with inserts-"windows" made of transparent material. In turn, for relatively small household products, the walls are rather symbolic — they are made of mesh material, if necessary, closed with a zipper, and in some models they are completely absent.
— Camping tent. The simplest kind of awnings are products in the form of a piece of dense matter, usually rectangular or close to it in shape. Many camping tents are designed to be secured between trees, poles, or other makeshift supports. Such an installation can be quite difficult, but the awning itself is as light, compact and easy to transport as possible. More advanced models are also produced, equipped with their own supports and guy wires and suitable for installation directly on the ground. Anyway, camping awnings themselves are intended primarily for protection from the sun and, to a much lesser extent, from rain. In addition, such products can be used as additional protection for tents — in heavy rain, an awning can be a real salvation, especially if the tent itself is single-layer and not particularly moisture resistant.
Number of seats
The number of places for which the tent is designed.
In general, double and triple models are the most popular nowadays — they represent a good compromise between spaciousness and comfort on the one hand and weight, price and ease of transportation on the other. Somewhat less common are four-man tents, although they are also quite popular. The smallest one- man products are mainly either trekking tents or fishing tents (mainly for winter use, see "Purpose"). And in the largest structures, the capacity can reach 5 people or even more.
In general, this parameter is most important for traditional tourist tents (expeditionary, trekking, camping), as well as for fishing tents of "carp" specialization (see "Destination"). In the first case, the number of places is indicated by the number of adults of average build who can comfortably sleep inside — provided there are no bulky things in the tent. So when choosing, you should take into account the physique of users, as well as the presence of backpacks or other luggage, which may require space inside. At the same time, some models officially allow accommodation for 1 person more than originally provided; however, this significantly affects comfort and may require the location of the "jack".
In turn, in tents f...or fishing, the maximum number of carp folding beds, for which the product is designed, is taken into account. At the same time, it is assumed that such folding beds can be used both for recreation and for fishing.
As for other types of tents, the number of places for them is rarely indicated. So, in separate tents-tents, the same rules apply as in ordinary tents — the number of beds is taken into account. In beach tents, a two-person design may be indicated if the product is guaranteed to comfortably accommodate two people. Models for a shower / toilet are, by definition, single-seated, for them there is simply no need to clarify this point; and for camping tents, the very concept of “number of seats” is not relevant.
Seasons in which the use of a tent is allowed.
There are three main seasonality options: winter, spring / autumn and summer. At the same time, the design features necessary for comfortable use of the tent in different seasons are as follows:
— In winter, the tent should effectively protect against snow and wind, and its materials and fittings should normally endure a long stay in the cold. Thermal insulation is also desirable, but in general this is a secondary factor — the main insulation is provided primarily by clothing, a sleeping bag and a bed.
— In the off-season — in spring and autumn — protection from rain, which can be accompanied by strong winds, is of particular importance.
— For comfortable use in the summer heat, good ventilation is required, ideally with insect protection, such as mosquito nets.
As you can see, these requirements generally do not contradict each other and may well be combined in one product. Thus, there are very few tents on the market designed strictly for one season — two- or even all-season options are much more common. For example, even among beach tents (see "Purpose") there are models for which the possibility of using in the off-season is claimed — for this, the design provides for a dense awning, or even the ability to completely close the tent. Almost any model from the "spring-autumn" series additio...nally has a summer specialization; and most models suitable for winter actually allow year-round use.
In conclusion, we recall that tents with the same seasonality and purpose can at the same time differ significantly in characteristics and design features.
The total weight of the tent is including the frame and other accessories.
This parameter depends primarily on the purpose (see above), and after that — on seasonality, capacity, and additional functions. For example, in trekking and expedition models, the weight usually does not exceed 5 – 7.5 kg, and the lightest of these products can weigh 2 – 3 kg or even less, while being full-fledged tents for 2 people or even more. However, for a trekking tent, such a small weight with a capacity of more than 2 people usually means that this model is designed exclusively for the summer. For most camping tents, the weight starts at 6 kg, although among them there are also quite light products — by 4 – 5 kg, 3 – 4 kg, or even less (in such cases, light weight can also mean a purely summer specialization). And the most capacious and/or multifunctional models can have a weight of 10 – 15 kg, 15 – 20 kg and even more; in this weight category, you can mainly find tents, camping tents for many people and fishing tents for carp fishing (see "Destination").
When choosing a tent according to this indicator, it is worth considering that it does not always make sense to chase the maximum weight reduction. Yes, the lig...ht tent is the most convenient to carry; on the other hand, weight reduction inevitably affects one or several other characteristics at once. So, most often, lighter models are either more expensive or smaller in size and less roomy and functional than their heavier counterparts. And sometimes weight reduction also negatively affects the security (including moisture resistance) and the overall reliability of the product. Therefore, it makes sense to specifically look for the lightest tent possible in cases where weight reduction is of key importance; a typical example is long trips, in which all the equipment has to be carried “on oneself” for a long time. And even in such cases, it is worth remembering other important characteristics. For example, for use in late autumn, when frosts are likely, it is better to choose a heavier tent with winter seasonality than a light model that is not designed for winter conditions.
— Hemisphere. Tents with a frame of two (sometimes more) crossed arches. The main advantage of such a case is good resistance to wind. On the other hand, the interior space of the hemispheres is relatively small.
— Half -shell. In cross section, the semi-barrel has the shape of a half circle (or more or less similar), and its frame consists of several semicircular arcs arranged in parallel. This provides a good internal volume, but the wind resistance of this type of hull is lower than that of hemispheres (which, however, is not critical in conditions of plains and low mountains, where there are no storm winds).
— Shatrovaya. In such a case, one rack is used, located in the middle, and the tent itself has the shape of a pyramid or cone. The advantage of tents is their high height, the disadvantage is the inconvenience due to the presence of a rack inside the living space and poor resistance to wind. This form is quite rare.
— Double. The upper part of such a body is a rib, from which two sides of the awning (slopes) diverge at an angle. To create this shape, two internal supports are usually used at the ends of the tent. This design provides additional water resistance, because. the awning is located at a large angle to the drops falling from above; at the same time, due to the inconvenience created by the suppor...ts located inside, and a number of other features, such tents are very rare.
— Cube. A hull shape found only in fishing tents (see "Intended Use"). Almost all such models are intended for winter use and ice fishing. At the same time, some of them do not have a bottom or are equipped with a hole in the bottom, which allows you to install an awning directly above the hole; others are closed from all sides, including from below, and fishing is supposed to be through the opening. However, among the cubic tents there are also demi-season/summer models, including advanced solutions for carp fishing.
A canopy is mainly used for camping tents, much less often for trekking tents, as well as separate tents and fishing tents (see "Purpose")
The canopy is a kind of "roof" over the entrance to the tent. In most models, the role of such a “roof” is played by the same part of the canopy that is used to tightly close the entrance: to turn it into a canopy, this part must be raised to a horizontal position and two complete supports should be installed under the free edge. The main purpose of the canopy is additional protection from the sun and rain while the entrance to the tent is open; but its design and features of application may be different. So, this feature is most popular in camping tents (see "Purpose"); in such models, the height of the canopy may exceed the height of an adult. In turn, in trekking models, the canopy is often supplemented with fabric “walls” on the sides, which significantly improves protection from rain and other precipitation. In turn, fishing tents with this element of equipment are carp fishing models, and the canopy is installed directly at the time of fishing.
The vestibule is a kind of "entrance hall" in front of the entrance to the main compartment (s) of the tent.
The specific design and purpose of such a "hallway" may be different. So, in small two-layer tents, the space between the inner and outer layers in front of the entrance plays the role of a vestibule (for this, the outer canopy is stretched at a greater angle relative to the vertical than the inner one). The dimensions of such a compartment are small, it is designed mainly for storing individual items, such as shoes. In larger models, the vestibule is made in the form of a full-fledged compartment, which differs from the main compartment only in the absence of a bottom (although there are exceptions). Such a compartment can be located between two sleeping compartments; and in some tents two vestibules are provided at once.
Anyway, such equipment increases the useful area of \u200b\u200bthe tent and provides additional comfort when using it. Tambour can be used to store equipment, often quite bulky; with an open entrance, it provides additional protection for the main volume of the tent from rain, sun and wind; and in a large vestibule(150 cm long or more), you can even organize additional sleeping places (if the weather permits) or even an auxiliary room such as a kitchen, dining room, administrative area, etc. " below.
The length of the vestibule provided in the tent.
See above for more details on the vestibule. As for its dimensions, the length of the vestibule is measured along the same side along which the length of the entire tent is measured; and the width of this compartment usually corresponds to the overall width of the tent, and it does not need to be specified separately in the specifications. At the same time, we note that due to such measurement rules, the length of the vestibule is often less than its width; this is quite normal in this case.
The specific ratio between the dimensions of this compartment in different tents may be different. However, in general, a longer vestibule is usually larger and more capacious than a shorter one. When choosing, it should be taken into account that a large and spacious additional compartment increases overall comfort, but it significantly affects the price and weight of the tent (not to mention its overall dimensions). So when choosing for this parameter, it is worth considering the real conditions and features of the operation of the tent. We only note that in order to organize additional beds, it is worth paying attention to vestibules with a length of at least 150 cm — usually, they can accommodate additional places at least across, and often along the tent.
Models with this feature are actually two tents, one of which is located inside the other. In this case, the outer tent is usually made of a dense waterproof material, and the inner one is made of a light, moisture-permeable material. This design provides good thermal insulation and protection against moisture, including from condensate: most of it settles on the outer tent, without penetrating inside. Many double-layer tents allow you to set up only the inner tent separately, which can come in handy in warm weather. The disadvantage of this option is the increased, in comparison with single-layer, dimensions and weight.
Quick Install System
The special design of the tent frame, which facilitates its installation.
The specific design of quick install systems may vary. Often, a rigid folding frame is sewn directly into the awning, which eliminates the need to reattach the awning to the arcs every time. An inflatable frame (see "Frame type") or a base made of an elastic material can also be used. The disclosure system itself may also differ from model to model. For example, in many classic tents, an umbrella-type mechanism is used (there are even so-called umbrella tents — see “Purpose”; although the matter is not limited to them). In other models (mostly small products like winter fishing tents), the product is first “flattened” and then bent in a special way, turning into a small flat disk.
The advantage of quick set up systems is evident from the name — they greatly simplify the deployment and folding of the tent. As for the disadvantages, most often this is a high cost due to the complexity of the design, and somewhat reduced reliability (for the same reason). In addition, ease of unfolding does not always mean ease of folding — in some models this is a rather "cunning" procedure.
Bedroom with partition
The presence of a removable or folding partition in the sleeping compartment of the tent. We emphasize that we are talking about a part that can be installed and removed at will; non-removable partitions are not taken into account in this case.
This function is found only in large roomy tents — for 4 people or more. A bedroom with a partition allows, if necessary, to provide the inhabitants with some degree of isolation from each other; of course, there is no talk of complete privacy, but even such a symbolic separation can play an important role. For example, a tent can be divided into male and female halves, two married couples can be separated into a “separate room”, etc. And if the tent is not 100% full, one part of the sleeping compartment can be allocated, for example, as a warehouse for bulky equipment, or as a working room (such as a makeshift first-aid post). Similar options are available for tents with separate sleeping areas (see "Bedrooms"), but a baffle is more versatile and often cheaper than two completely separate compartments (although it does not provide the same degree of isolation as is the case with completely separate bedrooms).
The number of separate sleeping quarters provided in the design of the tent. Note that for models with 1 bedroom, this parameter in our catalog may not be specified at all, but with a larger number of bedrooms, it must be indicated.
In this case, only the main compartments, originally intended for overnight stays and best isolated from the environment, are considered sleeping quarters. Vestibules (see above) are not taken into account in the calculation, even if the size of the vestibule allows organizing an additional bed (s) in it.
Most modern tents have one sleeping area — this allows you to minimize the size and weight, and in most cases does not cause any particular inconvenience. However, there are models that have more "bedrooms"; in some cases, it can reach 4. At the same time, we emphasize that we can talk about separate sleeping areas only when each such zone is separated from the others by a vestibule or at least a solid non-removable wall. But a removable partition (see "Bedroom with a partition") in this case does not turn one sleeping compartment into two (although it does provide some degree of insulation).
Anyway, having several sleeping areas will be useful if people living in a tent need to be separated for one reason or another. For example, inside you can separate the "male" and "female" parts, in order to avoid ambiguous situations — or vice versa, provide married couples with their own...sleeping quarters. There are other options for using tents for more than 1 bedroom — for example, one compartment can be allocated for storage for bulky equipment, or a first-aid post with a separate closed room for examinations and manipulations can be organized.
Number of inputs
This paragraph refers to the total number of entrances to one sleeping area of the tent. Please note that even if there are 2 entrances to the sleeping area, but inside the zone itself there is a wall / partition that divides it into two parts, it is considered that the entrance is 1 (that is, 1 entrance to 1 sleeping area). Spare entrances / exits will be useful in cases where the tent is intended for the rest of numerous people, so people can put on their shoes and go out at the same time without interfering with each other. In modern tents, the number of entrances / exits can vary from 1 to 6. Several entrances are usually made in multi-person tents.
Entrances to the bedroom
The number of entrances to the bedroom provided in the design of the tent.
It is worth clarifying that if there are several bedrooms in the design (see "Bedrooms"), then in this case, not the total number of entrances is taken into account, but the number of entrances per bedroom. For example, if a tent has 2 bedrooms, each with 1 entrance, then the specifications will show 1 entrance to the bedroom.
In other words, if the design declares 2 entrances to the bedroom, this means that there are two exits from each bedroom (regardless of the total number of bedrooms). This design is convenient primarily because it is possible to leave the sleeping compartment, if necessary, in the most convenient way, without disturbing the sleeping neighbors once again. .
Number of windows
Number of windowsprovided by the design of the tent. Windows provide the penetration of natural light and relieve you of the need to use additional sources of lighting during daylight hours; in addition, when properly positioned, they allow you to inspect the area without leaving the tent.
The presence of ventilation windowsprovided in the design of the tent. These windows are essentially vents and, unlike normal windows (see above), are not designed to provide light or visibility. Their main purpose is to provide an influx of fresh air and remove moisture from the tent released by people during breathing and sweating. Good ventilation is especially important if a tent (usually a camping tent, see "Use") is organizing a kitchen.
The wind valve allows you to close the ventilation window to prevent snow or rain from getting inside. Its name is due to the fact that ventilation windows usually do not allow precipitation falling strictly vertically (in calm weather), but a strong wind can bring drops or snowflakes inside.
— External. The outer frame is considered more convenient to set up, especially in the case of double-layer tents (see "Inner tent"), because. both the inner tent and the outer awning are put on the frame at once. On the other hand, such a frame is more susceptible to the negative influence of natural conditions and does not allow you to put the inner tent separately.
— Internal. The inner frame is somewhat more difficult to install than the outer one; at the same time, it is less affected by adverse external conditions, and in two-layer tents (see "Inner tent") with an inner frame, it is usually possible to install only an inner tent, without an awning.
Note that only tents in the form of a hemisphere or half-barrel have a classic frame (see "Hull Shape"); in the case of gable tents, the “outer/inner” characteristic refers primarily to the location of the supports, and the term “frame” does not apply to tent models at all.
— Inflatable. In such tents, the role of the frame is played by airtight hollow tubes made of flexible material (rubber or polymers), usually arc-shaped. When folded, they can be folded quite compactly, and when the tent is set up, they inflate (usually with a special pump), acquiring the desired shape and sufficient rigidity to support the awning. The advantages of inflatable frames are their low weight and ease of installation, they are usually referred to as quick installation systems (see...above for the latter). On the other hand, inflatable elements are very sensitive to damage: a small crack or hole, which is not critical for a conventional frame element, breaks the tightness and makes the tent unusable.
Hub design (HUB)
The arcs are connected using a connector (hub). Most often it is one, but there are variations when arch-racks are attached to the “main” arc. The hub structure (HUB) combines the entire frame of the tent into one, makes the tent more reliable and stable, simplifies the installation of the structure, and improves the accuracy of the geometry of the installed tent. Putting a crooked tent with a HUB structure will not work, even if you intentionally try to mount the structure poorly. The main idea of the hubs is to mount the arches and guides as vertically as possible. In this case, the tent becomes extremely roomy.
The number of poles provided in the frame of the tent. For hemispherical types (see "Shape") for 2-3 people, not intended for extreme conditions, 2 poles are considered quite sufficient; larger and/or reinforced models may have more poles. In the case of half-barrels, this amount is directly related to the length of the tent.
Both the rigidity of the frame and the reliability and durability of the tent itself depend on the thickness of the arcs. Usually, the larger and more capacious the tent, the thicker the arches are needed for the frame. Arcs made of plastic and fibreglass most often have a thickness of 7 to 13 mm, while steel and aluminium — from 5 to 16 mm. With an increase in the section of the arcs, the weight of the tent in the folded state also increases.
The material from which the frame of the tent (arc) is made. The main requirements for arcs are strength, resistance to deformation (elasticity) and low weight. Modern tents use several materials with different ratios of these parameters.
— Aluminium. A fairly common material: it has good strength characteristics and low weight, but it is relatively inexpensive. At the same time, aluminium is prone to deformation under long-term stress (although this is usually not critical even when parking for several days).
— Fibreglass. Composite material based on a combination of fibreglass and plastic. The main advantage of fibreglass is resistance to deformation: even under prolonged loads, the arcs do not lose their shape. In addition, this material is cheap and light in weight (although somewhat heavier than aluminium). The disadvantage of fibreglass is its sensitivity to low temperatures, which limits its use in winter conditions and at high mountains. However, most people use tents in the warm season, and therefore fibreglass has recently gained considerable popularity.
— Steel. Steel is the most durable of the described materials, in addition, it holds loads well, almost without deforming. At the same time, steel arcs have a significant weight, and therefore they are rarely used in tents.
— Durapol. A composite material that has appeared rel...atively recently and is positioned as a more advanced alternative to fibreglass. Durapol has a "puff" design: the outer layer is made of special polymer resins, metal foil is located under it, a synthetic mesh is located under it, and, finally, a layer of fibreglass. According to the creators, arcs made of this material are more durable and resistant to fracture than fibreglass, better tolerate low and high temperatures, as well as ultraviolet radiation, are less susceptible to residual deformations and have less weight.
— Nylon. Synthetic material with good water resistance and average characteristics in terms of strength and resistance to negative influences: quite suitable for light weather conditions, however, when wet, it loses some strength (tends to stretch), and is also sensitive to prolonged exposure to ultraviolet radiation. As a result, it is used relatively rarely.
— Polyester. It also refers to synthetic materials, it is considered a slightly more advanced option than nylon: it withstands wetting and heating well, is less sensitive to ultraviolet radiation, and as a result, it has greater durability. At the moment it is the most popular material for awnings.
— Polyamide. The general name for some varieties of synthetic fabrics, including, in particular, nylon and nylon described above. The properties of polyamides are similar to nylon: on the one hand, low cost, resistance to moisture and abrasion, as well as strength, on the other hand, a tendency to stretch when wet and loss of strength when exposed to UV radiation
— Polycotton. A material that combines cotton with synthetic fibers (usually polyester), usually in a ratio of 1:2 (synthetic-cotton). This combination provides durability, resistance to adverse conditions, polycotton resists moisture well and at the same time “breathes”. It's also better than pure synthetics at keeping you cool on a hot day and warm on a cold day. At the same time, this material is q...uite heavy and expensive, which is why it is rarely used and only in camping tents (see "Purpose").
— Polyurethane. Typically, this refers to a polyurethane coating applied to a synthetic polyester or nylon backing. The main purpose of such a coating is to improve the water resistance of the awning (see below). However, the specific values of water resistance in different models can vary markedly. The base material (and, accordingly, the main features of the awning) usually depends on the price category of the tent.
— Polyethylene. Polyethylene is absolutely waterproof, but it also does not let air through. As a result, this material is found exclusively in tents (see "Destination").
— Texit membrane. A variety of high-quality membrane fabrics, combining, on the one hand, high water resistance values (10,000 mm Hg and above), on the other hand, the ability to "breathe" and let water vapor through, which contributes to thermoregulation and maintaining a comfortable climate in the tent. However, this material is expensive, and therefore it is used only in high-end expeditionary equipment.
— Cotton. Natural cotton, usually, with nylon or polyester rip-stop threads, as well as additional water-repellent impregnation. This material is durable, reliable and at the same time passes air well and provides convenient thermoregulation, keeping cool in hot weather and warm in cold weather. Its disadvantages are the high cost and rather large weight, which limits the use of cotton for advanced models of camping tents.
Strengthening the material (impregnation)
— PU (polyurethane). A polyurethane (PU) coating is applied to the inside of the outer tent. The protective layer of polyurethane increases the moisture resistance of the tent, at the same time, the strength of the awning fabric also increases. The main advantage of polyurethane is the ability to reliably protect seam joints. However, polyurethane protection is not the most effective, besides, the presence increases the weight of the tent. The use of polyurethane protection alone is more typical for entry-level (low-cost) class tents. In good quality tents, PU coating is complemented by other types of protection, often polyurethane is used together with silicone (Si).
— Si (silicone). The outer tent fabric is impregnated with silicone (Si). Silicone significantly increases the moisture resistance of the tent. The fabric impregnated with silicone acquires elasticity, its strength characteristics increase. This type of protection is considered the most technologically advanced and functional. The tent itself is impregnated with silicone (from the outside), and sometimes a PU coating is additionally made from the inside for better water resistance. The main disadvantage is the inability to protect seam joints. For this reason, the seams in silicone impregnated tents are glued separately.
An indicator that reflects the ability of the tent awning to withstand moisture without getting wet. It is expressed in millimetres of water column — the height of the water column that the awning can withstand (the area of impact is out of the question, because the load per unit area under water depends only on the height of the water column and is not related to the area of \u200b\u200bits base). The significant figures indicated in the characteristics (for example, 4000 mm of water column, i.e. 4 metres) are due to the fact that raindrops can have a significant speed and, when they hit the tent, create a load at the point of impact comparable to the pressure on depth of several metres.
In general, the higher the waterproof rating, the better the awning will cope with the effects of rain and snow. Indicators up to 3000 mm w.c. Art. are considered sufficient for places where it rains rarely, awnings for 3000 – 7000 mm of water. Art. allow you not to be afraid of intense downpours, and in expeditionary (see "Destination") tents designed for extreme conditions, this figure can reach 10,000 mm of water. Art. and even more. However, more water-resistant fabrics, usually, have a significant weight, so in each individual case it makes sense to choose the option that is optimal in terms of durability and weight.
— Polyester. Synthetic material with good durability and waterproof performance. In addition, it is resistant to adverse effects (does not lose strength when wet, exposed to acidic and alkaline environments, temperature changes).
— Nylon. In general, the characteristics of nylon are somewhat lower than those of polyester: it tends to stretch when wet and is generally less resistant to adverse effects. At the same time, given that most owners use tents in relatively simple conditions, these points are not critical; in addition, some manufacturers use a special treatment to improve the durability of nylon.
— Polyethylene. This material is mainly used in inexpensive models of camping tents (see "Purpose") — this is primarily due to its significant weight. For other characteristics, it does not have key differences from other materials.
— Polyamide. The general name for a class of fabrics, which includes, in particular, nylon and nylon. Some manufacturers use this term for marketing purposes: "polyamide" sounds more solid than "nylon", although these materials practically do not differ in characteristics and are used in the same way — mainly in inexpensive models.
Bottom water resistance
An indicator that reflects the degree of resistance of the bottom of the tent to moisture. For more information about the features of measuring this indicator, see "Tent waterproofness". Here also note that, for obvious reasons, the bottom, unlike an awning, is practically not subject to rain drops — as a result, the requirements for bottom water resistance are significantly lower. So, fabrics with a water resistance of 3000 mm of water. Art. are considered absolutely waterproof (up to the possibility of putting a tent in a puddle), and higher values usually indicate an increased thickness of the fabric and corresponding strength and wear resistance. Just like with an awning, more waterproof fabrics tend to have a significant amount of weight, so it doesn't always make sense to look for bottoms with maximum water resistance.
The corners of the tent are one of the "critical" places: in the unfolded state, they have almost the greatest stress, and the fabric in this place can be torn. To avoid this, many tents are equipped with reinforced corners. In this case, strength can be increased due to multi-layer sewing, special fabric or additional firmware.
The seam is the weakest point in terms of water resistance: even completely impervious fabrics can leak at the junction. Sealing is used to prevent this. Such seams are used in the vast majority of modern tents. At the same time, even expensive models are not insured against marriage, and therefore, if you plan to use the tent in rainy weather, it is recommended to check the seams for water resistance beforehand — in order to avoid unpleasant surprises at the most inopportune moment.
In this case, it means protecting the materials of the tent from the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation — it increases the wear of the fabric and even the frame, reducing the service life and reliability of the tent. This is especially true in highlands, where the level of UV radiation is significantly increased compared to the plains. Therefore, if you are looking for a tent for mountain hiking, you should separately pay attention to the presence of UV protection.
Special impregnation of the tent fabric, which reduces the speed of flame propagation. In the event of a fire, this will give you extra time to get out of the tent, carry out things or take measures to extinguish the fire. In addition, such impregnation generally reduces the likelihood of accidental ignition (for example, from a fire spark or an unsuccessfully thrown cigarette butt). Almost all modern tents are treated with refractory composition.
The canopy, or skirt, is a strip of fabric attached around the perimeter of the tent in its lower part, at the very bottom. Its main purpose is to cover the openings that form between the bottom of the tent and the ground on uneven places, so that in bad weather water or snow does not get under the bottom; thus, the place under the tent remains dry, which ensures comfortable conditions inside. The presence of a canopy/skirt is recommended in the first place if you plan to use the tent at low temperatures or in the mountains.
— Reflective elements. The outer surface of the tent is equipped with special reflective inserts. Thanks to this, the location of the tent will be visible from afar, which allows users to quickly navigate in the dark, easily determining the location of the tent city / tent. Often, reflective fibers are woven into wind braces so that at night they do not catch on.
— Mosquito net. Fine-mesh mesh covering the openings in the tent: entrances, windows, ventilation openings. Its presence is highly recommended if you plan to use the tent in the warm season: it allows you to ventilate the interior without letting mosquitoes and other unpleasant flying insects inside.
— Lantern loop. A special mount (loop, hook or carabiner), usually under the ceiling, designed to secure the lantern inside the tent. It will allow you to easily organize indoor lighting and eliminate the need to hold a flashlight in your hands or independently find a place for its best location.
— Internal pockets. Pockets located on the inside of the tent. They facilitate the organization of the internal space, allowing you to conveniently place relatively small items — glasses, watches, some tools, etc. It also reduces the risk of accidentally crushing fragile items.
— Shelf for small items. The purpose of the hangi...ng shelf is generally similar to the inside pockets (see above): to organize the space inside the tent so that small items are not lost and are not accidentally crushed. In some tents, there may be several such shelves. Shelves are usually located in the upper part of the tent, which allows them to also be used as a stand for a lantern if there are no loops for it (see above) or it is impossible to use it for some reason.
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