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Engine Oils 

Engine Oils: specifications, types

Type

Mineral. The name of this type is due to the fact that the oil has a completely “fossil” origin — its components are hydrocarbons obtained during the distillation of oil. This type of oil appeared first and is still used today, however, it is gradually giving way to synthetics and semi-synthetics. This is due to the fact that pure mineral oils are significantly inferior in performance to these two types. In particular, they do not tolerate both high and low temperatures — they can thicken and even freeze already at -15 ... -20 °C, and when boiling, they greatly clog the engine. Oxidation of such oil occurs faster, which requires more frequent replacement. In addition, many modern engines put forward rather stringent requirements for the quality of fuels and lubricants, which mineral oils simply do not fit into. On the other hand, stamps of this type are easy to produce and inexpensive.

Synthetics. Such oils are produced artificially, using chemical synthesis (hence the name). They appeared as a means of overcoming the shortcomings of mineral varieties and have proven themselves in this role, because. Synthetic oil production technology allows you to create liquids with almost any characteristics — cold-resistant, not prone to oxidation, a certain viscosity, etc. On the other hand, this technology is quite complex and expensive, which affects the price of the product accordingly.

— Semi...-synthetic. Such brands of oil are mixtures of mineral and synthetic components and, accordingly, are a cross between the two types described above. They are much cheaper than purely synthetic oils, and although they are inferior to them in terms of characteristics, they are in many ways superior to purely mineral products. Semi-synthetics are considered the best option for cases where oil consumption is high, but mineral varieties cannot be used — for example, if you often have to drive long distances in cold weather, or if the engine in a car for long trips has high requirements for lubrication quality.

Purpose

Type of vehicle or other unit for which the oil is designed. Different types of machines have different features, which is taken into account when developing motor oils:

Passenger cars. Passenger cars have high speeds at low loads, which led to the use of engines with relatively low torque.

Trucks. For trucks, high speed is of secondary importance, however, they have to deal with heavy loads, and the engines must “pull” accordingly.

Motorcycles, scooters, snowmobiles. Two-stroke engines (see "Engine") are very popular among two-wheeled vehicles, in which the requirements for oil characteristics are different from four-stroke ones. In addition, motorcycle engines (including four-stroke ones) are in most cases equipped with so-called "wet clutch" (as opposed to dry, used in cars), and also work at higher speeds.

Water transport. Most engines installed on motor boats, boats and yachts are two-stroke. However, they operate in different modes than motorcycle ones (in particular, they use water cooling instead of air), which necessitated the use of specialized oils.

Agricultural machinery. Agricultural machinery uses predominantly diesel engines; at the same time, the speed of movement for such units is not critical, but high traction and resistance to loa...ds, on the contrary, are of decisive importance.

Gasoline tool. Gasoline tool engines are in many ways similar to the motorcycle engines described above — in particular, they are often made two-stroke.

Note that the recommendations for the appointment are not categorical: for example, some chainsaws allow the use of motorcycle or even automotive oils, and for trucks, “agricultural” oil may be suitable. On the other hand, general purpose compliance does not guarantee that the oil will be suitable for a particular unit: for example, petrol engine compounds cannot be poured into a diesel passenger car. So this parameter is not final, but only preliminary: having decided on the purpose, you need to select a specific oil according to more detailed characteristics (engine type, SAE indicators, manufacturer's tolerances — see below).

Engine

Type of engine for which the oil is designed. If compatibility with your type of engine is not directly indicated in the oil specifications, you should not use this brand. The fact is that all types of modern engines have their own characteristics, and a lubricant not designed for these features can increase wear, reduce power, or even lead to breakdown. Modern oils can be produced for the following options:

Petrol. A four-stroke internal combustion engine (ICE) running on gasoline is implied. The main type of motor for modern passenger cars, it is also quite common in medium and high power motorcycles.

Diesel. ICE on diesel fuel.

Gas-gasoline. Petrol engine (see above), supplemented by gas-balloon equipment and capable of using natural gas as fuel. One of the main features of working on gas is the high operating temperature.

Hybrid. Most often, hybrid cars combine a gasoline or diesel engine with an electric motor and can be powered by either one or the other. Both the design of the "hybrids" themselves and their engines can have significant differences from classic cars.

2-stroke. Two-stroke internal combustion engines are widely used in motorcycles — in particular, almost all scooters, many entry-level and mid-level motorcycles, as well as tools l...ike chainsaws, are equipped with such engines. Their main feature is the use of a fuel-oil mixture instead of a separate filling of gasoline and oil.

There are brands of oil that are compatible with several types of engines at once.

Volume

The nominal capacity of the package, in other words, the volume of oil supplied in this packaging option.

Depending on the purpose of the purchase, the type of vehicle and other factors, the optimal volume will be different. So, liter bottles are useful for replenishing the oil supply, or for tasks that do not require high consumption (for example, infrequent work with a gas tool); a capacity of 4 liters is designed for a complete oil change in a passenger car; the volumes required by trucks can reach tens of liters; and for car parks, service stations and other similar organizations, oil is produced in barrels of about 200 liters.

SAE

The degree of oil viscosity, determined according to the international SAE standard. Viscosity is one of the key physical characteristics of an oil that determines its compatibility with a particular engine. Most modern brands of oil are all-weather and are designed for use, including and at low temperatures. Therefore, the SAE index for them includes information not only on the viscosity characteristics in a warm engine, but also on frost resistance.

Such an index is usually written in the form of two numbers separated by the letter w: 0w-8, 0w-12, 0w-15, 0w-16, 0w-20, 0w-30, 0w-40, 5w-20, 5w-30, 5w -40, 5w-50, 5w-60, 10w-30, 10w-40, 10w-50, 10w-60, 15w-40, 15w-50, 15w-60, 20w-20, 20w-50, 20w-60, 25w-40.... There is also the format SAE 10w, SAE 20, SAE 30, SAE 40 and SAE 50. The first number describes only the cold resistance of the oil, and does not apply to its properties when the engine is warm. If 35 is subtracted from this number, you get the minimum temperature at which the engine can be cranked over to start. In our example, this temperature will be 15-35=-20 °C. Of course, such values are rather arbitrary, because In fact, other factors must also be taken into account. For example, with a dead battery (which is not uncommon in cold weather), a cold start can cause difficulties even at a higher temperature than follows from the characteristics of the oil.

The second number determines the characteristics of the oil in a warm engine in normal mode, at normal operating temperatures. It is this indicator that is the main one for choosing a brand of lubricant for a particular car — you must strictly adhere to the manufacturer's recommendations. The fact is that each engine is designed based on strictly defined viscosity values. Too viscous oil will linger in moving parts in large quantities, and too fluid will leave them without lubrication at all; In both cases, power drops and wear increases. Therefore, first of all, when choosing according to SAE, the second number and its correspondence to the characteristics of the engine should be considered.

Compliance

International standards, compliance with which is claimed in the characteristics of this brand of oil. In modern brands of oil, there may be such options:

— API is a standard developed in the USA by the American Petroleum Institute. Provides two separate classifications — for gasoline ( API SG, SH, SJ, SL, SM, SN, SN Plus) and for diesel engines ( API CI-4, CH-4, CG-4, CF, CE, CD); in the first case, the first letter in the designation of the standard is the letter S (for example, API SL), in the second C (for example, API CI-4). If the oil is suitable for both types of motors, a double designation is used — for example, API SL / CI-4; in this case, the index of the type for which the oil is best suited is put first (in our example, it is gasoline). The standard also includes the classification of two-stroke engines — TA, TB, TC, TC +, TD.

— ACEA — a standard used by the association of Eur...opean automakers of the same name, an alternative to the American API. Includes three classes: A / B — all oils developed before 2004 for different types of engines. Actually, until 2004 there were two classes here — A for gasoline engines and B for diesel ones; then they were merged ( A1/B1, A3/B3, A3/B4 and A5/B5). However, separate designations can still be used today. C — oils for all types of engines that comply with the Euro-4 environmental standard and are compatible with additional equipment such as catalysts and particulate filters. APEA C1, C2, C3, C4 and C5 occur. E — a separate class for diesel engines of heavy equipment, including special ones. It is marked APEA E4, E6, E7 and E9.

— JASO — developed by the Japan Automobile Standards Association. It is one of the main modern standards for oils for gasoline motorcycle engines, within this purpose it has two classes — F for two-stroke engines, namely FA, FB, FC, FD and M for four-stroke (MA subclass for wet clutch MA-1 and MA -2, MB for dry).

— ILSAC is a standard created jointly by the American and Japanese Automobile Manufacturers Associations. It is used for oils designed for passenger cars with gasoline engines. There are only five ILSAC categories ( GF-2, GF-3, GF-4, GF-5, GF-6A), in general they are similar to certain API categories (see above), but they differ in increased requirements for energy saving and limiting harmful emissions .

A list of specific oil standards recommended by the manufacturer for a particular engine is usually indicated in the official vehicle specifications. Note that many standards are interchangeable; compatibility data (as well as a description of each individual category) can be found in specialized sources.

Manufacturer approvals

Tolerance can be described as an individual automaker's own standard, developed for a specific engine or engine line. It includes all the requirements that an oil must meet in order to be optimally suited for a particular engine. The list of these requirements is much wider than in generally accepted standards (see above). This is due to the fact that many of the manufacturer's developments applied in the motor and affecting the requirements for oil are still too specific and cannot be included in the general rules (and some cannot be taken into account also because they are classified information) . Many famous car brands have their approvals ( BMW, Fiat, Ford, MAN, Mercedes-Benz, Opel, Renault, Peugeot and Citroen, Volvo and VW concern); to obtain approval, each brand of oil undergoes very rigorous tests, and only after them does it receive the right to indicate information on compliance on the packaging.

This information, of course, is not necessarily indicated for all car models. However, if the tolerance data is in the official specifications of your car, the search for the right brand of oil is greatly simplified — the complia...nce of the oil with this tolerance automatically guarantees optimal compatibility with the car. In other words, instead of specifying a whole set of parameters (appointment, viscosity, etc.), it will be enough to make sure that there is a tolerance.

Approvals Audi, VW, Skoda, SEAT

An engine oil quality standard that VAG considers essential for correct operation when used in the engine of its vehicles. For various engines (respectively, car brands) there is a standard, among which there are 500.00, 501.01, 502.00, 503.00, 503.01, 504.00, 505.00, 505.01, 506.00, 506.01, 507.00, 508.00, and 508.00 ,

Porsche approvals

An engine oil quality standard that Porsche considers essential for correct operation when used in the engine of its vehicles. For various engines (respectively, car brands) there is a standard, among which are A40, C20, C30 and C40.

Approvals BMW, MINI

An engine oil quality standard that BMW considers essential for correct operation when used in the engine of its vehicles. For various engines (respectively, car brands) there is a standard, among which are Longlife-98, Longlife-01, Longlife-04, Longlife-12 FE, Longlife-14 FE + and Longlife-17 FE +.

Approvals Mercedes-Benz

An engine oil quality standard that Mercedes-Benz considers essential for correct operation when used in the engine of its vehicles. For different engines (respectively, car marks) provides its standard, among which there are 226.5, 226.51, 226.9, 228.5, 229.3, 229.5, 229.5, 229.5, 229.5, 229.5, 229.7, 229.5, 229.5, 229.5, 229.3, 229.5, 229.31 , 229.5

Ford Approvals

Approvals Opel, GM

An engine oil quality standard that the car manufacturer Opel and GM consider essential for correct operation when used in the engine of their vehicles. Different engines (respectively, car brands) have their own standard, among which are 6094M, 4718M, Dexos 1, Dexos 1 Gen 2, Dexos 2, Dexos D, GM-LL-A-025, GM-LL-B-025 and OV0401547.

Approvals Peugeot, Citroen

An engine oil quality standard that the PSA Group considers essential for correct operation when used in the engine of its vehicles. For various engines (respectively, car brands) there is a standard, among which are B71 2290, B71 2294, B71 2295, B71 2296, B71 2297, B71 2300 and B71 2312.

Renault approvals

An engine oil quality standard that Renault considers essential for correct operation when used in the engine of its vehicles. For various engines (respectively, car brands) there is a standard, among which are RN 0700, RN 0710, RN 0720, RD, RD-2, RGD, RLD, RLD-2, RLD-3, RLD-4, RLS-3, RVI and RXD.

Volvo approvals

An engine oil quality standard that Volvo considers essential for correct operation when used in the engine of its vehicles. For various engines (respectively, car brands) there is a standard, among which are VCC 95200356, VCC 95200377, VCC RBS0-2AE, VDS, VDS-2, VDS-3, VDS-4, VDS-4.5 and CNG.

Approvals Jaguar, Land Rover

An engine oil quality standard that the Jaguar car manufacturer, Land Rover considers essential for correct operation when used in the engine of their vehicles. For various engines (respectively, car brands) there is a standard, among which are ST JLR.03.5003, ST JLR.03.5004, ST JLR.03.5005, ST JLR.03.5006, ST JLR.03.5007, ST JLR.51.5122.

Approvals Fiat, Alfa Romeo, Lancia

An engine oil quality standard that Fiat considers essential for correct operation when used in the engine of its vehicles. For various engines (respectively, car brands) there is a standard, among which there are 9.55535-CR1, 9.55535-D2, 9.55535-G1, 9.55535-G2, 9.55535-GH2, 9.55535-GS1, 9.55535-GSX, 9.55535-H2, 9.555 M2, 9.55535-N2, 9.55535-S1, 9.55535-S2, 9.55535-S3, 9.55535-S4, 9.55535-T2 and 9.55535.Z2.

Approvals for Chrysler, Dodge, Jeep

Engine oil quality standard, which the car manufacturer Chrysler, Dodge, Jeep considers mandatory for correct operation when used in the engine of their cars. For various engines (respectively, car brands) there is a standard, among which are MS-6395, MS-10725, MS-10850, MS-11106, MS-12991 and MS-13340.

MAN approvals

An engine oil quality standard that MAN considers essential for correct operation when used in the engine of its trucks. For various engines (respectively, car brands) there is a standard, among which there are 271, M3271-1, M3275, M3275-1, M3277, M3377, M3477, M3575, M3677.

Mack tolerances

An engine oil quality standard that Mack considers essential for correct operation when used in the engine of its trucks. Different engines (respectively, car brands) have their own standard, among which are EO-L, EO-M, EO-M Plus, EO-N, EO-N Premium Plus, EO-O Premium Plus and EOS-4.5.

Approvals Caterpillar

An engine oil quality standard that Caterpillar considers essential for correct operation when used in the engine of its trucks. For various engines (respectively, car brands) there is a standard, among which are ECF-1, ECF-1-a, ECF-2, ECF-3 and TO-2.

DAF approvals

An engine oil quality standard that DAF considers essential for correct operation when used in the engine of its trucks. For various engines (respectively, car brands) there is a standard, among which are HP-1 and HP-2.

Scania approvals

An engine oil quality standard that Scania considers essential for correct operation when used in the engine of its trucks. For various engines (respectively, car brands) there is a standard, among which are LDF, LDF-2, LDF-3 and LDF-4.

Cummins Approvals

An engine oil quality standard that Cummins considers essential for correct operation when used in its engines. For various engines (respectively, car brands) there is a standard, among which are CES 20071, CES 20072, CES 20076, CES 20077, CES 20078, CES 20081 and CES 20086.

Deutz approvals

An engine oil quality standard that Deutz considers essential for correct operation when used in its engines. For various engines (respectively, car brands) there is a standard, among which there are DQC II-05, DQC II-10 LA, DQC III-05, DQC III-10, DQC III-10 LA, DQC IV-10 and DQC IV -10 L.A.

Approvals MTU Detroit Diesel

An engine oil quality standard that MTU Detroit Diesel considers essential for correct operation when used in its engines. For various engines (respectively, car brands) there is a standard, among which there are Category Type 1, Category Type 2, Category Type 2.1, Category Type 3 and Category Type 3.1.
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