Camping Stoves: specifications, types
— Burner. This type includes classic burners — devices designed for cooking during hiking or cycling trips, when all the equipment has to be carried "on oneself". Accordingly, they have relatively small dimensions and weight for maximum portability, and during operation they use an open fire, thus serving as a kind of replacement for a camp fire. This type is worth paying attention to if compactness is critical for you.
— Stove. Like classic burners, this type of device is intended primarily for cooking in conditions of "separation from civilization". Their most noticeable difference is their larger size and corresponding weight. Due to this, the plates are much less convenient for carrying over long distances. On the other hand, they are more powerful than burners and are better suited for large amounts of cooking. As a result, the main purpose of the plates is primarily the so-called camping tourism, where there are no such strict weight restrictions as in long hiking trips; as an example, you can take a car trip out of town for a few days. Another distinguishing feature of the plates is the design. While classic burners can vary significantly, all stoves are similar: they have a characteristic flat shape and use cylinders exclusively with a collet mount (see “Cylinder Mount”).
— Lamp. As the name implies, this type of burner is not intended for cooking,...but for lighting at night. Their main distinguishing feature is the presence of a special nozzle. Outwardly, it looks like a wick, but since the vast majority of lamps run on gas (see "Fuel"), the nozzle is more likely not a wick, but a divider: it expands the flame from gas combustion and thus provides the necessary amount of light. Nozzles can be impregnated with special compounds that further increase the brightness. In addition to all this, many lamps have a protective glass bulb: it covers the surrounding objects from the flame, and the flame itself — from wind, rain, etc. Some flasks are made opaque, so that the light from the lamp is more even. The dimensions and weight of the lamps are usually small, they, like classic burners, are mostly designed for ease of carrying.
— Heater. Devices designed for heating can have different purposes: from compact hand warmers, slightly larger than a lighter, to powerful models of the order of 1-2 kW (see "Power"), which allow you to create comfortable conditions in a tent or a small room . At the same time, this is a rather rare type of burner, because. in most cases, the necessary thermal comfort is provided by other equipment (warm clothes, sleeping bags, etc.), and in the bulk, heaters are designed more for lovers of simple “forays” into nature than for professional tourists.
Type of fuel for which the burner is designed.
— Gas. Liquefied gas (usually isobutane or a propane-butane mixture) supplied in special small cylinders that are easy to transport. Gas burners are practical, easy to use, compact (often smaller than the cylinders themselves) and inexpensive, making them extremely popular. Of their noticeable shortcomings, one can only note a decrease in efficiency in the cold and/or in high altitude conditions, however, these moments are not so often critical, and in some models they are compensated by the use of preheating systems.
— Liquid fuel. Liquid fuel, most often alcohol, gasoline or kerosene; however, different models can be designed for different types of fuel, this point should be clarified separately. Anyway, the main advantage of such burners over gas burners is the constant efficiency in almost any conditions, including at low temperatures and high in the mountains. In addition, liquid fuels are somewhat more affordable: for example, gasoline in a pinch can be bought at a gas station or hardware store. On the other hand, liquid fuel models are mostly heavier and more bulky than gas ones, and when using poorly refined fuel, an unpleasant odour appears and the nozzles are likely to become clogged. High-quality fuel is not available everywhere and can be quite expensive. Therefore, there are fewer such models produced than gas ones.
— ...href="/list/365/pr-10380/">Multi -fuel. Multi-fuel burners are those that can operate on both gas and liquid fuels. The delivery set of such a burner, respectively, includes both a connector for a cylinder and a special container for liquid fuel (or at least an adapter with a pump for an external tank); also, when changing the type of fuel in some models, a replacement of the working part is required. Anyway, such a burner allows you to choose the type of fuel depending on the situation; on the other hand, such versatility affects the price, dimensions and weight of the entire device.
— Solid fuel. Burners designed for solid fuel — usually wood in the form of twigs, chips, special pellets, cones, etc. In fact, such a burner is a more advanced and efficient analogue of a conventional campfire. Efficiency is achieved due to the fact that many of these devices have combustion chambers of a special design that ensures complete combustion of fuel (this is unattainable in a conventional fire). And the main advantage of this type of burners over gas or liquid fuel models is that in many cases you don’t need to carry fuel with you — for example, while hiking through the forest, it literally “rolls under your feet”. On the other hand, fuel is not so easily available in every locality; and it takes up noticeably more space in the luggage than a container with gas or liquid. In addition, solid fuel (even in the form of special pellets) is noticeably more difficult to ignite, its combustion power is more difficult to regulate (although possible), and a “muffled” burner with unburned fuel inside can cool down for quite a long time, which sometimes creates inconvenience.
A method of fastening a cylinder or other container with fuel provided in the burner.
— Threaded. Threaded connection — simply put, the cylinder in such models is screwed to the device. It is mainly used in burners and lamps (see "Type") on gas fuel, although there are exceptions. Both the connection itself and the fuel containers designed for it are durable and reliable, which makes this option very popular.
— Collet(it is also choke or stock). A variant used in most stoves (see "Type"), but also found in traditional burners. A cylinder for such a mount has an outlet in the form of a short tube (rod), which, when connected, is fixed in a special clamp — a collet. Installing and removing such cylinders takes less time than threaded ones, and the containers themselves are somewhat cheaper. On the other hand, the collet is somewhat inferior to the thread in terms of reliability.
— Portable. Burners in which the fuel tank is connected not directly, but through a special hose. This design provides a number of advantages. Firstly, the burner installed separately from the cylinder is more stable, and the whole structure is more fireproof, since the fuel supply is quite far from the flame. Secondly, the fuel container can have almost any shape and size — the main thing is that it fits the hose mount. Thirdly, this container can be turned over and/or rai...sed relative to the burner, increasing the rate of fuel supply; this is especially useful when using gas burners in the cold. On the other hand, such devices, when unfolded, take up more space and have a higher risk of leakage than direct-connected burners.
— Built -in. Fuel tank, made as a single unit with the burner. This option is found only in liquid fuel models (see "Fuel") — it is easier and safer to use removable cylinders for working with gas. An integrated tank is stronger and more reliable than a removable or separate one, it has a minimal risk of leakage; on the other hand, the inability to separate the burner from the tank can create some inconvenience during storage and transportation.
Some models of burners allow the connection of cylinders with a "non-native" mount — through an adapter. However, this option is rather a spare in case of emergency, and it is best to use the standard containers. Also note that the compatibility of a particular cylinder with a burner should be clarified separately, even if it matches the general type of attachment. The fact is that different manufacturers of fasteners of the same type (thread, collet) may differ in characteristics and be incompatible with each other. It is best to use cylinders directly recommended by the manufacturer (see "Replacement cylinders").
The rated power of the burner is the amount of heat generated by it during operation. For models with power control, the value is indicated at the maximum mode.
The nuances of choosing this parameter depend on the type of device. So, the general rule for burners and stoves (see "Type") states that at least 1 kW of power is needed to efficiently heat 1 liter of liquid. And the volumes that you have to deal with depend on the number of tourists and the expected conditions: in a warm climate, 600-700 mL per person is enough for 1 cooking, in a cool one — 1 liter, and it is better to clarify recommendations for different types of extreme tourism in special sources. Thus, the minimum indicator for burners is actually 1 kW, for stoves — 1.5 kW, and the most powerful ones can provide 3 kW or more. Note that more powerful burner models have the appropriate dimensions and weight, and you can heat a large amount of food several times; so for long hikes with luggage carried on you, a relatively low-powered device may be more suitable.
In the case of heaters, it can be assumed that a power of 1 – 1.5 kW is enough for 5 – 7 m2 of area — this is quite enough to heat a tent or tent, higher power is rarely required in fact. And for lamps, the main indicator of efficiency is not power, but luminous flux (see below).
The amount of fuel required for the normal operation of the burner for a certain time; usually stated in grams per hour. Different manufacturers may calculate fuel consumption differently, but most often it is indicated for normal operation, when the burner produces the power indicated in the documentation (see "Power"). Knowing the fuel consumption and the capacity of the cylinder used (see "Replaceable cylinders") or the built-in tank (see "Filling volume"), you can easily calculate the time of continuous operation of the burner.
Time of continuous work
The time that the burner is able to work without changing the cylinder or refilling the tank. Usually, the characteristics indicate the operating time at maximum power (see above); at lower power, the actual operating time may be longer than stated. However, it is best to evaluate and compare different models by directly claimed battery life.
Another important nuance is that battery life directly depends on the volume of the fuel tank — and many modern burners are designed for interchangeable cylinders produced in different volumes. Therefore, the characteristics may indicate for which cylinder model the continuous operation time is given (and for multi -fuel models, the type of fuel should also be specified). If there are no such data, the tank capacity required for a certain time can be calculated from fuel consumption: for example, gas consumption of 180 g / h and battery life of 120 min (2 h) mean that the data are given for a cylinder of at least 360 g (400 mL) gas. With other volumes, the time of continuous operation will differ accordingly.
Boiling time for 1 liter of water
Approximate time required to boil 1 liter of cold water on the burner. Of course, in fact, the boiling time may differ from the claimed one, since it is affected by the shape and material of the dishes, ambient temperature, etc.; however, this parameter quite clearly characterizes the overall efficiency of the device, it is quite possible to compare different models with each other. At the same time, it should be taken into account that when working with other volumes, the time may not change in direct proportion: for example, if 1 liter requires 300 s, then 2 liters may require not 600 s, but more, but 0.5 L — not 150 s, but less.
The maximum light level provided by the burner-lamp (see "Type"). It is the main indicator of efficiency for this type: the higher the level of illumination, the brighter the light and the larger the area the lamp can illuminate. Modern manufacturers designate illumination in lux (lux); Simply put, 1 lux can be described as the illumination produced by the flame of an ordinary candle. More accurate methods for assessing illumination and choosing a lamp for this parameter can be found in special sources.
The maximum amount of fuel that can be placed in the burner in one refueling. This parameter is relevant mainly for liquid and multi-fuel models (see "Fuel"), it corresponds to the working volume of the tank (complete or built-in). At the same time, a larger tank allows you to work longer without refueling, but it affects the dimensions and weight of the entire structure. Therefore, its volume is chosen depending on the performance in such a way that one filling is enough for at least 1.5 – 2 hours; in lamps and compact heaters (see "Type") the battery life can be much higher.
The ability to adjust the power of the burner. This feature is useful given that working at full capacity is not always justified. For example, a rather weak flame is sufficient to maintain a boil; on high heat, many dishes burn, warm up unevenly, and even the fuel consumption is unreasonably high, etc. Thanks to the power regulator, you can "screw" the burner flame to the desired level — or vice versa, set it to full power, depending on the current need.
Built-in flame ignition system based on a piezoelectric element. Such an element does not require batteries: it generates electricity by pressing the ignition button, and ignition is carried out using an electric spark. This function allows you to do without matches, lighters and other external sources of fire; however, if desired, the flame can be ignited with their help, without the use of piezo ignition.
Availability in a torch of function of preliminary heating of fuel. In such models, the fuel supply system is designed in such a way that the burner flame slightly heats the fuel line during operation.
This function somewhat complicates the design and increases its cost, but increases efficiency and reduces fuel consumption. The presence of preheating is especially important if the device is planned to be used in the cold and/or in high altitude conditions. Under such conditions, the gas pressure at the outlet of the cylinder drops significantly, and liquid fuel can become viscous; both have a negative effect on power and efficiency, while heating allows you to compensate for these phenomena.
No open fire
Models of burners that work on gas do not allow open flames. This design allows the models to be used near flammable objects, in particular in a tent. Most of these models are stoves and heaters.
The diameter of the burner provided in the burner or stove (see "Type"). Indicated by the size of the flame corolla in normal operation. First of all, compatibility with dishes depends on this size: the size of the dishes must be at least the diameter of the burner, otherwise effective use will be impossible. In addition, this indicator affects the overall dimensions of the burner; and a larger burner usually means more power (see above), although there is no hard dependency here.
The presence of its own container for cooking in the delivery set of the burner.
Such a complete set not only eliminates the need to purchase utensils for cooking separately, but also provides other advantages. So, "native" dishes can have a mount for secure fixation on the burner and a heat exchanger to improve the heating efficiency; and in some models, the complete container is also used as a container for transporting the burner and cylinder. The disadvantage of this option is that the burners in this configuration are most often poorly suited for use with third-party cookware, and the standard capacity does not always meet the user's requirements.
The burner has a special curtaincovering the flame from the sides. Such a curtain can have a different design: it can be built-in (folding), removable, and can even be made in the form of a screen completely separate from the burner, installed directly on the ground. Anyway, the main purpose of this device is to protect the flame from strong winds. In addition, the curtain can be useful for camouflage — for example, when hunting or during a military-tactical game, when the light from the flame can give the user away.
USB Charging Generator
The burner has a built-in generator that can supply power to the USB connector for charging external gadgets.
As a generator, usually, a thermoelement is used, which works on the basis of the Seebeck effect — when electricity arises due to the temperature difference between the hot (heated by the flame) and cold (located outside) part of the thermoelement. In addition, the design usually provides for a built-in battery — it plays the role of a stabilizer and "storage" for energy that may be needed later. The power of such a charger can reach 3 – 4 W (600 – 800 mA at standard 5 volts for USB): this is relatively small, but it is quite enough to recharge the battery of a smartphone, walkie-talkie, navigator or other compact device.
The presence of a cylinder with fuel in the kit, which allows you to use the burner out of the box without purchasing additional accessories.
Models of cylinders for the use of which the burner is structurally designed. Usually, the cylinders specified in the specifications are guaranteed to be compatible with the burner in the standard configuration — up to the point that for models equipped with adapters for different types of fasteners (for example, from thread to collet, see "Cylinder Mount"), this paragraph often indicates both regular and "non-native" cylinders.
Knowing the names of the cylinders, you can easily find fuel for the burner in specialized stores.
The presence of a cover in the delivery set of the burner. The cover will be useful during transportation and storage: it will protect the device from various negative impacts and reduce the risk of losing components (after all, burners are often stored and transported unassembled). For this purpose, impromptu packaging can also be used, however, a complete case that is optimally suited for the burner will be more reliable and practical. In addition, in models with a cooking container (see above), the cover can also play the role of a heat-insulating casing, which allows you to transfer the device right during the cooking process.
— Titan. Durable, wear-resistant and light weight material, characterized by high resistance to corrosion and resistance to high temperatures. Burners in a titanium alloy body make ammunition as light as possible in comparison with models made of other metals, which is extremely important when hiking.
— Steel. The stainless steel body guarantees a long service life of the burner due to its high resistance to corrosion. Steel also tolerates high temperatures well.
The total weight of the device. Usually, the specifications indicate "dry" weight — excluding fuel.
Lightness is important on long hikes where you have to carry your gear; on the other hand, ceteris paribus, less weight means either low strength and reliability, or greater cost. The lightest classic type burners and lamps (see "Type") weigh up to 200 g, in the working position, most of the mass of such a device falls on fuel. However, there are also more massive models. For plates, in turn, lightness is not critical, and most of these models are quite heavy — 1 kg or more. In heaters, the weight can be different — from 60 – 70 g in pocket hand warmers to 1.5 kg (or even more) in powerful outdoor appliances.
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