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Tyres: specifications, types


The time of the year the tyres are designed for.

Tyres designed for the warm season are called summer, for cold — respectively, winter (among the latter, studded and non-studded models are separated, see below for details). The need for separation by season is due to the fact that when the temperature drops, the rubber solidifies; therefore, cold weather requires softer tires than warm...weather. And the time when you need to change tyres is best determined by the average daily temperature: if it is above +5 °C, it is better to use summer tires, if lower — winter ones. There are also more detailed recommendations regarding the time of changing tyres, they can be found in special sources.

Also note that there are tyres positioned as all-weather. Such models should be treated with some caution: they can be produced in countries where winters are very mild, without snow and severe frosts, and be designed specifically for such “all-season”; for a full-mean winter, such tyres may not be suitable. So the specific attributes of all-season tyres should be specified separately (including reviews). If there are no detailed info, such tires are best considered as summer tires with slightly increased resistance to cold, and if used in winter, then in simple conditions (for example, driving along well-cleaned city streets).

Product Type

The type of tire is the type of vehicle for which it is designed.

This parameter is determined mainly by the height of the profile in centimeters, and in some cases by the size and load index. In general, there are three main types of tires - for cars and SUVs, for SUVs and vans. Here is a more detailed description of each option.

– Lightweight. Tires with a relatively low pr...ofile height for a wide range of passenger cars, aimed mainly at smooth roads and more or less favorable operating conditions. Among such products of the tire automotive industry, you can find both rubber exclusively for passenger cars and tires for SUV class cars (SUVs, crossovers, city SUVs). Compared to traditional passenger cars, SUV tires differ in increased values ​​of the radius and height of the profile, reinforced internal structure, as well as increased load indices.
— Crossovers. Crossovers are designed for more difficult conditions than conventional cars, they often have to deal with difficult terrain or separate high bumps. Therefore, tyres of this type have a significant profile height – more than 14 cm. It should be noted that such tires can have different specializations – both all-terrain and off-road; see “Suitable for” for details.

— Minibuses. Tyres designed for relatively heavy vehicles – minibuses and mini trucks. Such vehicles still does not reach the full-fledged freight transport, however, they have more weight than passenger cars. Accordingly, tyres for such vehicles has a high load index.

Suitable for

This parameter is indicated for models that are designed for a specific format of operation and differ markedly from conventional tires for "everyday" use. In our time, there are such destinations: sports track tires(namely, semi-slicks and slicks for track days and training on race tracks); off-road tires - all- terrain (All-Terrain) and off-road (Mud-Terrain) ; as well as economical solutions to reduce fuel consumption. Here is a detailed description of each of these options:

— Sports track. A special kind of "high-speed" tires with a reduced tread depth. More precisely, this feature is characteristic of semi-slicks; in slicks, there is no pattern at all, the surface of such a tire is completely smooth. This provides excellent speed performance. On the other hand, slicks and semi-slicks are intended mainly for specialized racing tracks with high quality even surfaces; the use of such tires on ordinary roads is at least not recommended, and for some models it is completely prohibited.

- All-terrain (All-Terrain). Universal all-terrain tires, designed mainly for dirt roads and off-road, but quite effective on even asphalt. They are inferior to off-road ones (see below) in terms of efficiency on rough terrain, but they behave better on hard surfaces. So it is precisely such rubber that will be the best choice for tech who, in addition to difficult terrain, often have to travel on ordinary roads. Externally, tires of this purpose are characterized primarily by a rather deep tread and high profile.

- Off-road (Mud-Terrain). Tires designed for maximum cross-country ability and efficiency on rough terrain, including complete off-road. According to these indicators, such tires are noticeably superior to all-terrain tires (see above); outwardly, it is distinguished by a very deep tread and a high profile height (in most models - 60% and above). But for regular driving on asphalt, tires of this purpose are poorly suited. Therefore, paying attention to off-road tires makes sense, first of all, to tech who have to drive on dirt roads and off-road most of the time.

- Economical. A tire that is claimed to have relatively low rolling resistance, resulting in additional fuel savings. Many of these tires do indeed have a high rolling resistance index (see the relevant paragraph) - A, B or C. However, in some models the resistance index is not indicated, and they are classified as economical based solely on the manufacturer's statements.


Tyre width — the distance between the sidewalls of an inflated but unloaded tyre.

Width is one of the attributes that determine the compatibility of a tyre with a specific rim (the second attribute is the rim diameter). It should be noted that the width of the tyre does not have to strictly correspond to the width of the rim, certain deviations are allowed. There are special charts that allow you to determine the permissible widths for a specific wheel; in addition, such recommendati...ons may be indicated in the documentation for a specific car.

The following tyre width options are spread on the modern market: 135 mm, 145 mm, 155 mm, 165 mm, 175 mm, 185 mm, 195 mm, 205 mm, 215 mm (8.5"), 225 mm, 235 mm, 240 mm (9.5"), 245 mm, 255 mm, 265 mm (10.5"), 275 mm, 285 mm, 290 mm (11.5"), 295 mm, 305 mm, 315 mm, 320 mm ( 12.5"), 325 mm, 335 mm, 345 mm (13.5") and over 345 mm.

Aspect ratio

Tyre aspect ratio. This parameter is usually expressed as a percentage of the width, since it is not the height itself that is of practical importance, but its ratio with the nominal section width.

In general, the lower the ratio, the more stable the tyre, the better it is suitable for high-speed driving on flat roads. Higher ratio, in turn, work better on rough surfaces and over obstacles, making them good for bad roads and off-road. If we talk about...specific numbers, nowadays, the following options are spread on the market:

— Low profile tires: 25%, 30%, 35%, 40% ;
— Medium profile : 45%, 50%, 55%, 60% ;
— High profile : 65%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 82%, 85%, and 90% or more.

Tyre inner diameter

Tyre inner diameter in inches. The key parameter that determines the possibility of installing a tyre on a car: the tyre diameter must match the diameter of the rim. It is worth noting that some vehicles have +/- 1 inch diameter tolerance; this point should be clarified separately in each case.

In modern passenger vehicle tires, the following rim diameters are most widely used: 12", 13", 14"..., 15", 16", 17", 18", 19", 20", 21", 22", 23", 24".
Tyre inner diameter
Width (mm)
Aspect ratio (%)
Suitable for
Speed rating
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