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Bikes: specifications, types

Model year

The year to which the manufacturer refers the bike (more precisely, the lineup, which includes this model).

The value of this parameter is that the range is updated every year, and two bikes with the same name, but different years, can significantly differ in performance and equipment. At the same time, new models ( 2022, 2021) usually cost more, while older ones ( 2020, 2019, etc.) are sold at reduced prices.

Note that a later year of manufacture in itself does not necessarily mean more advanced features — manufacturers can change them in the direction of simplification. So the 2018 model could be just as good as the 2021 bike.


Nowadays, there are many varieties of bicycles for certain needs. For asphalt, city bikes, road bikes (universal version combining urban comfort and mountain passability) and road bikes are provided. For rough terrain, it is better to pay attention to mountain(there are different types: cross-country, downhill / free ride, trial / street / dirt), tourist(certain subspecies of cyclocross and gravel). And, of course, a separate niche is occupied by electric bikes, BMX and fat bikes that are gaining momentum.

Electric bike. Bicycles equipped with electric motors and batteries. The method of using such equipment can be different: in some models it only helps the cyclist, reducing the effort on the pedals, in others it allows you to ride without pedals at all, like on an electric moped (for more details, see "Operating modes"). In terms of purpose, most of these machines are closest to city bikes (see above), but there are exceptions — in particular, some models combine the capabilities of an electric bike and a fat bike (see above). An...yway, the electric drive provides additional convenience and reduces the effort required when driving; and even a dead battery is not terrible for such a bike — you can continue to move in the usual way, on the pedals. On the other hand, electric bikes are heavier than regular bikes and are much more expensive.

— Fatbike (MTB). A type of mountain bike designed specifically to easily and quickly overcome obstacles that are difficult for other bikes, such as loose snow, sand or impassable dirt. First of all, they are distinguished by extremely wide tires (see “Tire width”) and low pressure, which improves grip on the surface. When riding on loose surfaces, such tires do not sink, and the lower ground pressure allows the cyclist to pass through without getting bogged down.

— Urban. In full accordance with the name, this class of bicycles is designed for city driving; this implies the usual movement on roads with a smooth surface, without any "extreme". Models of this type are often equipped with accessories designed to increase the comfort of the ride and expand the capabilities of the bike, such as spring saddles, racks/panniers, chain guards, etc. (see "Complete set"). At the same time, city bikes are poorly suited for long trips and difficult conditions, and therefore they can be recommended to adherents of a quiet ride within the city.

— Road. Bicycles of this type are a cross between mountain bikes (MTB) and city bikes (see above for both of these types). On the one hand, fitness bikes provide a “sporty”, inclined landing and numerous gears, on the other hand, there is no depreciation in the design, additional “chips” can be provided, such as a boot or baskets on the steering wheel, and the wheels are large (usually 28 "). "This allows you to accelerate to fairly high speeds, while the bikes are more resistant to uneven roads and increased loads than classic road bikes. As the name suggests, the main purpose of such models is considered to be fitness — riding to restore and maintain physical fitness. However, the matter is not limited to this, and bicycles of this type can also be used in other roles — for example, for trips around the city, if speed is important in such trips and the classic city bike turns out to be too slow for this.

— Mountain (MTB). Abbreviation for MountTain Bike. In this case, two types of bicycles are included. The first is the “classic” mountain. It is designed mainly for cross-country driving without the specific loads characteristic of specialized varieties (see below). This type is characterized by a thick, durable frame, wide wheels, tires with a deep tread. The wheel size is most often 26". Many of these models are quite suitable for driving on a flat road; of course, here they lose to road models (see below), but if you have to ride both on the highway and off asphalt, it is better to choose MTB The second variety is models that are close in characteristics to specialized ones (see below), but for one reason or another do not fit into a certain class — for example, due to the large weight (in the case of cross-country similarity), poor adaptability to high jumps (dirt), etc.

— Mountain (cross-country). A type of mountain bike designed for cross-country racing. Some sections of cross-country trails are somewhat simpler than similar elements in competitions such as downhill or trials (see below), but the trails themselves are very diverse. Therefore, a bicycle of this type must combine speed, manoeuvrability, “tenacity” to the ground and convenience on ups and downs. In fact, this is achieved by using lightweight materials for frames (aluminium, titanium, carbon, see “Frame material”), tires with deep tread, hard tail or full suspension suspension with lockout functions (see “Suspension”, “Rear suspension lockout”). ") etc.

– Mountain (downhill / freeride). A specialized type of mountain bike designed for downhill skiing. Types of such a descent differ in the type of surface: downhill uses pre-prepared tracks, while more extreme freeride is carried out on complete off-road. However, for those and for other bicycles, the characteristic features are common: these are wide wheels and a lot of weight. The latter is due to the reinforced design: during descents, weight does not play a decisive role, but the loads on the machine are very high, which requires increased strength and maximum reliability of all parts. There is usually only one gear selector — only on the cassette (rear), respectively, there are few speeds. But the suspension on both wheels (see "Amortization") is almost mandatory.

— Mountain (trial/street/dirt). This type of mountain bike is in many ways similar to BMX (see below): its main purpose is to perform tricks of one kind or another. So, trial competitions are the passage of a specially prepared strip of various obstacles; At the same time, the main criterion for evaluation is not speed, but accuracy and accuracy. Street is an acrobatic ride around the city, in which the elements of streets and buildings act as obstacles — curbs, railings, stairs, etc. And in dirt, tricks are performed in the air, during jumps made from special earthen springboards. Bicycles for all these types of riding, usually, have a small frame and one speed — this provides the necessary manoeuvrability and “responsiveness” of the machine. Some models may be equipped with front shock absorption, others (usually for trials) with full rigid suspension (see "Suspension").

— Tourist. Bicycles designed for long-distance travel on different types of roads — both on a hard surface, and on primers and other rough terrain. Outwardly, they are most similar to road, gravel and cyclocross bikes, but in fact they combine the properties of mountain, road and city models. So, most touring bikes have a somewhat more massive and durable frame than "road bikes", which allows you to more or less successfully move off paved roads. The steering wheel can be either straight or road (see "Steering wheel shape"). In addition, many models are equipped with front racks (see "Complete set") or at least mounts for them; also, the design often provides wings, a footboard and other additional equipment that provides additional comfort on long-distance bike trips.

— Gravel. Bicycles that combine the features of road, city and mountain machines; in fact — devices designed to comfortably ride both on and off-road. The key point in this case is precisely comfort: the “gravel road” loses to the “road” in speed, and the MTB in cross-country ability, but it is more versatile and comfortable on different types of surfaces. Note that specific criteria for gravel bikes vary from manufacturer to manufacturer. However, common features can be identified in all such models: this is a combination of a “road” steering wheel with a relatively high landing, rather thick soft tires and disc brakes. Also note that at first glance, the "gravel roads" are similar to the cyclocross described below, but this impression is deceptive: the cyclocross is primarily a sports apparatus.

— Cyclocross. In the most general terms, this variety can be described as a modified version of road bikes (see above), characterized by increased cross-country ability and suitable for off-road travel — grass, sand, gravel, etc. Being outwardly very similar to traditional "road bikes", cyclocrosses at the same time, they differ from them in wider and thicker wheels and a smaller inclination of the rider when landing. In addition, cyclocross as a sport discipline provides that riders have to overcome part of the distance on foot, with a bicycle on their shoulder. Thus, specialized bicycles for such races are also made based on the convenience of carrying on the shoulder (wide frame, traction cables hidden inside the frame). And from gravel models (see above), cyclocrosses differ primarily in that they are designed not so much for comfort as for speed and manoeuvrability.

— Highway. A specialized class of bicycles designed to move on smooth roads over long distances. Road models feature a “recumbent” rider position (highly forward lean) for better aerodynamics, narrow wheels and handlebars with a characteristic curved design (see Handlebar Model) and no shock absorbers of any kind (see Damping). Thanks to all this, high speed of movement with minimal resistance is ensured, on good road surfaces road bikes are better than any other models for long trips (suffice it to say that this type of bike is used in large-scale cycling races like the Tour de France). At the same time, all the advantages appear only on smooth, dry roads. Therefore, given the condition of most roads in the CIS countries, this type of bicycle has a rather narrow purpose and is mainly designed for specialized competitions and cycling marathons along specially selected routes.

— BMX. Bicycles designed to ride in the style of BMX (Bicycle Moto Cross — bicycle motocross). There are several varieties of BMX, but all of them have high loads on the structure and the performance of acrobatic stunts, which are practically inaccessible to other types of bicycles. Accordingly, BMX models have a low and very strong frame, wide wheels of small diameter (for good grip and powerful torque) and, most often, one gear (for ease of control and reliability). They can also be equipped with additional devices — for example, an axle of the front wheel extended in both directions, which the athlete uses as a step when performing tricks. Note that for normal driving on roads, BMXs are poorly suited, their purpose is acrobatics.

— Tricycle. Bicycles with twin rear wheels. A similar scheme is familiar to many mainly from children's tricycles, but in this case we are talking about full-size cars for adults. Thanks to the three wheels, the bike does not fall on its side even when it is completely stationary; this greatly facilitates the use, such models are suitable even for those who, for one reason or another, have difficulty maintaining balance on two wheels. On the other hand, a three-wheeled scheme is poorly suited for high-speed, stunt or off-road driving; in terms of design and use, such cars are most often similar to urban ones.

Operating mode

Motor modes supported by the pedelec(see "Application").

Hybrid — help in pedaling. A mode of operation in which the electric motor "helps" the cyclist by reducing pedal effort. In other words, the user still has to pedal, but this requires significantly less effort than when driving without an electric motor. This mode can be implemented even with a relatively low engine power, due to which it is found in almost all electric bicycles, including in the simplest ones.

Electric traction + hybrid. Bicycles that, in addition to pedaling assistance (see above), are also capable of operating in full electric traction mode — when the bike moves only due to the operation of the electric motor. Such a ride is as comfortable as possible, it does not require any physical effort from the user — in fact, in this mode, the bike turns into an electric moped. However, note that for efficient electric traction, rather powerful engines are needed, which affects the cost and puts forward corresponding requirements for battery capacity. Also note that in some low-cost models, the electric traction mode is “purely symbolic”, it only works normally on a flat road after preliminary acceleration with pedaling.


The age group to which the bike belongs. This parameter in our catalog is indicated only for teenage models; if the age group is not specified, it means that the car belongs to “adults” (children’s bikes are placed in a separate section of the catalog).

Teenage cars are designed for children aged about 10-14 years old, for whom children's bikes are already small, but adults are still too big. Such bicycles are similar in design to adults and differ from them mainly in slightly reduced sizes — in particular, the diameter of the wheels (see below) in them usually does not exceed 24 "(there are exceptions, but extremely rarely).


The type determines the "gender" of the bike, its specialization under the gender of the rider. In our catalog, this parameter is indicated only for specialized female models (and teenage models for girls). Such machines differ from “ordinary” (universal) bicycles in some design nuances provided for the convenience of the female part of the population. So, in many of these models, the frame is made lower, which allows you to comfortably ride even in a skirt or dress. Also, women's bicycles can have a special design — in bright colours, with patterns, etc.; in particular, models for BMX and trial (see "Application") in this case differ not so much in design as in design.

Note that it makes sense to specifically look for a “female” bike if increased comfort and/or appropriate design is fundamentally important for a cyclist. In other cases, it is quite possible to choose from universal models.

Max weight

The maximum load allowed for a bicycle is, in other words, the maximum weight that it can normally carry in normal use. Of course, when calculating the load, the weight of both the cyclist himself and the additional load that he carries with him is taken into account.

The permissible load must definitely not be exceeded: even if the bike does not break down immediately, off-design loads can weaken the structure, and an accident can occur at any time. Also note that it is desirable to have a certain weight margin — at least 15 – 20 kg: this can be useful in case of transporting heavy loads and will give an additional guarantee in emergency situations (for example, when a wheel gets into a pit). Considering that the average weight of an adult is about 70 – 80 kg, bicycles with a permissible load of up to 100 kg can be classified as "lightweights", from 100 to 120 kg — to the middle category, more than 120 kg — to "heavy trucks".

Frame size

Frame size refers to the distance from the saddle attachment point to the bottom bracket attachment point (axles with gears and pedals). The main parameters that determine the choice of a bike for frame size are the height of the user, the purpose of the bike and the intended riding style.

User height is the most significant factor. In general, the taller the user, the larger the frame should be. The universal formula that allows you to calculate a specific size is as follows: the length of the leg from the groin to the heel in centimeters must be multiplied by 0.6, and then divided by 2.5 — you get the approximate size of the frame in inches. But in the characteristics of brands, the frame can also be indicated in the usual form for measuring size XXS, XS, S, M, L, XL and XXL.

However, note that this value is very arbitrary and approximate, it can only be used for simple bicycles not intended for extreme driving (for example, city bikes, see "Destination"). If you choose a more specialized model (mountain, road, BMX) — it is better to refer to the tables for the appropriate type, because. sizes for one height can vary significantly depending on the destination. In addition, different manufacturers have different frame...geometry and measurement methods, and therefore, for the most accurate selection, it is recommended to use the manufacturers' own tables.

Note that the optimal frame size is not absolute — in most cases, for the same height, “neighboring” sizes are quite suitable. And here it is worth paying attention to the intended driving style. It is believed that small, well-controlled frames are better suited for extreme variant, and larger and more stable ones are better suited for long-term calm movement.

Recommended height

The user's height recommended by the manufacturer is calculated according to several parameters. One is the wheel diameter, and the second and more important is the frame size. If everything is simple with the wheel size — it is round and always the same, then the frame size complicates the choice. Different types of bicycles have their own frame shape, so even the same size can be suitable for different heights. And this is not to mention the features of the manufacturer, who like to do everything for themselves, and not in a general manner. Therefore, the size of the frame of each bicycle has its own size and it is still better to choose a bicycle by personally “saddling” it. If this is not possible, then our point will tell you what height, according to the manufacturer, this configuration (frame + wheel) of the bike is designed for.

Frame material

Steel. Steel is distinguished by high strength and rigidity, in terms of resistance to deformation, it noticeably surpasses other alloys and is inferior only to carbon fiber. At the same time, such frames dampen vibrations well, are inexpensive, and in the event of a breakdown, they are easily repaired. On the other hand, steel is heavy, three times heavier than aluminium and twice as heavy as titanium; therefore, such frames are found mainly among inexpensive mountain and city bikes, for which a lot of weight is not critical. It is also worth considering that this material is susceptible to corrosion if the protective coating is damaged.

Chromium molybdenum steel(Cro-Mo). An advanced variation of the steel described above. By themselves, chromium-molybdenum alloys have high strength and reliability, and frames made from them can have different wall thicknesses (depending on the load that a particular section is subjected to) — this allows you to slightly reduce weight. Thanks to this, Cro-Mo alloys are found even among fairly advanced road bikes, and they are also popular in touring models. At the same time, such frames cost much more than “ordinary” steel ones.

Aluminium. Actually, bicycles do not use pure aluminium, but various alloys based on it. They differ somewhat in characteristics, but they have a number of common features, the main of whi...ch is low weight combined with good strength characteristics. Due to this, aluminium alloys are widely used in road bikes, as well as in touring mountain bikes (see “Intended Use”). The main disadvantage of these materials is rigidity: they absorb vibrations worse than steel, which is why they are poorly suited for models without shock absorption (see below), and with a strong impact, such a frame will break rather than bend.

Carbon. Resin-bonded carbon fiber composite. It is used in high-end bicycles, as it is very expensive, but it is characterized by very high strength combined with low weight. Moreover, the properties of carbon fiber make it possible to increase strength not just in certain areas, but in certain directions, which contributes to even greater reliability. Note that carbon frames can be either solid (monolithic) or composite — in the latter case, individual elements are connected by metal parts, which reduces the cost, but makes the structure susceptible to corrosion. It is also worth considering that the quality of carbon in general depends on the price category of the bike, and relatively inexpensive frames can be sensitive to strong point impacts. This material is almost impossible to repair.

— Titan. A fairly advanced material that combines high strength, elasticity (which provides soft vibration damping), corrosion resistance and very low weight. However, the cost of such frames is quite high, and therefore they are used mainly in premium mountain and road bikes.

— Magnesium alloy. This material is notable primarily for its very low weight (many times lighter than aluminium), while it has good stiffness and elasticity characteristics, dampens vibrations well, and its price is relatively low. At the same time, magnesium alloys have a number of significant drawbacks. In particular, they do not tolerate impacts, especially point impacts, and are also extremely sensitive to corrosion even with minor damage to the protective coating, which is why such frames are very demanding for care and storage.


The presence or absence of a depreciation system on a bicycle, as well as the type of this system.

Without depreciation (rigid). In such models, the wheels are fixed directly to the rigid elements of the frame; there are no depreciation devices. Due to this, the design of the bicycle is simple, the weight is small, the cyclist feels all the features of the road topography as much as possible, and the maximum efficiency of pedaling is also achieved, which is important, for example, for road models (see "Destination"). At the same time, structural rigidity is a "double-edged sword". On the one hand, "feeling for the road" is important for BMX and some mountain models (see "Purpose"); on the other hand, the lack of shock absorption significantly increases the load on both the structure and the rider himself, leads to increased wear, fatigue and some risk of injury on rough roads.

Depreciation of the front fork (hard tail). The most popular type of cushioning in adult bikes (see "Age Group"), especially urban and mountain types (see "Purpose"). In accordance with the name, in such bicycles, the shock-absorbing device is installed only on the front fork, while the rear wheel is rigidly fixed. The presence of a shock absorber somewhat increases the weight of the structure and complicates its maintenance, however, the advantages of such a scheme significantl...y outweigh the disadvantages: hard-tails combine good handling, “road feel” and ride comfort, including and on rough terrain.

— Rear fork. Bicycles in which only the rear wheel is damped, while the front wheel is rigidly fixed. The rear shock absorber is designed to provide additional comfort when hitting various bumps, and the absence of a front shock absorber reduces the overall cost of the machine. This option is found mainly in urban models, including electric bicycles (see "Application"); in other varieties, the use of rear shock absorption is not practical.

— Two-suspension (full suspension). Bicycles equipped with shock absorbers on both wheels — a fork in front and a special suspension in the back. Such models are as comfortable as possible for driving on rough terrain, because. They dampen the vibrations felt by the cyclist best and provide the best grip on uneven tracks. At the same time, the presence of a rear shock absorber "eats" part of the energy coming from the pedals, and you have to spend more effort to ride. To avoid this, many two-suspension bikes can be provided with front and rear suspension lockouts (see below), but full suspension complicates the design anyway, increases its weight and price. Therefore, this type of cushioning is relatively rare, mainly in certain varieties of mountain bikes (in particular, for cross-country and freeride; see "Purpose").

Suspension type (fork)

Front fork suspension type (if available, see "Suspension"). All shock absorption systems in bicycles work in two directions: vibration damping (damping) and impact energy absorption (cushioning). Accordingly, they have two main components: a damper and a shock absorber. Depending on the design features of these elements, the following types of depreciation are distinguished:

Spring-elastomer. In this case, the role of a shock absorber is played by an elastic spring, and the role of a damper is played by a rod made of an elastic, well-compressible material, the so-called elastomer. This type appeared as a development of conventional spring damping systems, it is more durable, but poorly suited for low temperatures — the elasticity of the elastomer in such conditions decreases, which negatively affects the characteristics of the system.

Spring-oil. Systems using a spring as a shock absorber and an oil cartridge as a damper. This design is somewhat more resistant to low temperatures than spring-elastomer, and in general has quite good characteristics, due to which it is quite widely used in various types of bicycles. The main disadvantage is the higher (on average) cost.

Air-oil. Combined systems consisting of an air cylinder that acts as a shock absorber and an oil cartridge that acts as a damper. They appeared as a development of “pur...e” air systems, which had a serious drawback: even with high-quality maintenance, the seals wore out rather quickly, which could disable the shock absorber. Air-oil systems are more durable and easier to maintain, while being quite efficient and weighing little. The latter is especially valuable for cross-country (see "Purpose"), where it is required to combine depreciation with a low weight of the machine.

Fork travel

Front fork travel on bicycles with damped suspension (see "Suspension"). Roughly speaking, the travel of a fork is the maximum distance that its size can be reduced by compression during shock absorption. The longer the fork travel, the better the shock absorption and “soft” ride it provides, but not all bikes require a lot of travel. Even within the same type (see “Purpose”), depending on the specific application and riding style, the optimal fork travel will be different — for example, freeride mountain bikes need good shock absorption, and for cross-country, on the contrary, a long fork travel will be redundant.

In general, if you do not plan on extreme cross-country riding or doing cycling tricks, this parameter is not critical. However, when choosing a bike for serious cycling, it is worth checking the recommended fork travel values (according to specialized literature or from professionals) and making sure that the desired model corresponds to them.

Fork lockout

Possibility to disable the shock-absorbing system of the front fork (if available, see "Suspension"). Although shock absorption dampens shock, providing ride comfort, it also has a rather serious drawback — it reduces the efficiency of transferring energy from the pedals to the wheel. By disabling damping, you can significantly increase efficiency in conditions where vibration dampening is less important than good pedaling efficiency — for example, when driving on a flat road, or when driving uphill.

Fork material

— Aluminium. In this case, aluminium is the simplest and most unpretentious option. Its advantages include light weight; on the other hand, in the absence of shock absorption, the steering wheel with such a fork is highly susceptible to vibrations, and in terms of durability, aluminium is somewhat inferior to steel.

— Steel. Another relatively simple option, which at the same time is considered more advanced than the aluminium described above, and is found even in fairly expensive pro-level bikes. This is due to the fact that steel is noticeably stronger and more durable, as it is not as susceptible to "metal fatigue". However such forks weigh a little more than aluminium ones.

— Chromium molybdenum steel. A type of steel that is more advanced than more traditional grades. Among the main advantages of such alloys are high strength and reliability; at the same time, due to such properties, individual elements of the forks can be made thinner, and the forks themselves can be made lighter than ordinary steel ones. The main disadvantage of Cro-Mo steel is the rather high cost.

— Carbon. Lightweight and high-strength carbon fibre forks effectively dampen small bumps in the road under the wheels of the bike and slightly spring on small potholes, thereby providing cushioning on bumpy roads. The carbon fork facilitates the design of the front of the bike. Most often it is found on board "highways" and "gravel roads", less often it is installed in o...ff-road fatbikes. Vulnerable point — carbon forks break under the influence of strong point impacts.

Suspension type (rear suspension)

Type of rear suspension damping in full suspension bicycles (see "Suspension"). To date, there are such options:
  • Spring-elastomer.
  • Spring-oil.
  • Air-oil.
  • Air.
The first three options are described in detail above in the "Type of cushioning (fork)" section above. In air systems, as the name implies, the working element is air, which acts as both a damper and a shock absorber. This is very convenient due to the ability to change the stiffness of the suspension by adjusting the pressure in the system — the higher the pressure, the harder the damping. However, such shock absorbers are prone to rapid failure due to wear of the seals and require more careful maintenance than similar air-oil shock absorbers in many respects.

Shock travel

Rear suspension travel on models with full suspension (see "Suspension"). This characteristic generally has the same features as the front suspension travel — see the relevant paragraph above for more details.

Shock lockout

Possibility of deactivating the rear wheel damping system on bicycles with full suspension suspension (see "Dampering"). For more on the meaning of this feature, see " Fork Lockout "; here we note that most often these two functions are combined.


Possibility to fold the bike. This feature greatly simplifies storage and transportation — you can easily transport the bike in the boot of a car, train, etc. At the same time, the folding design inevitably loses in strength to the one-piece non-folding one, and therefore such bicycles are quite rare and are designed for simple conditions like city driving.

Seatpost suspension

The presence in the design of the bicycle of a separate shock absorber under the saddle. The seatpost cushioning significantly reduces the vibration and shock felt by the rider, which is especially important when riding on uneven terrain.


The model of the seatpost used in the bicycle.

Usually, this information is indicated if a high-quality part is used as a seat post. Knowing the name, you can find its detailed characteristics and descriptions; this is unlikely to be needed for light everyday driving, but may be useful for professional use.

Wheel size

The nominal diameter of the bicycle wheels. Usually, this paragraph actually indicates the size of the bicycle tires supplied in the kit, more precisely, the outer diameter of the tires.

Wheel diameter is traditionally indicated in inches. For bicycles of different purposes and age groups (see paragraphs above), there are certain size standards. So, adult mountain models are equipped mainly with 26 " wheels, "road" and urban ones — with a slightly larger diameter (mostly 28 "), and BMX for the most part — much smaller; children's and teens' bikes have smaller wheels than similar adults' bikes.

Other things being equal, larger tires hold speed better and work out small bumps on the road; and relatively small wheels are more “sticky”, they provide more torque and better traction. This is the reason for the above-described difference in wheel sizes between bicycles for different purposes. Such nuances will be useful if you choose a car from several models with similar characteristics, but different wheel diameters. Here it is worth considering the features of the planned application. For example, for urban and "road" driving — on a hard surface without any special irregularities and elevation changes — it is better to choose larger wheels, and for dirt roads with ups and downs — smaller ones.

Also note that tires are replaceable, and many bikes allow the installation of tires of...a “non-native” size — for example, 29 "on a model with 28-inch wheels. It is also worth considering that wheels (tires) of the same size may differ in inner (landing) diameter These nuances are described in detail in special sources.

Tyre width

The nominal width of the tires supplied with the bike.

Other things being equal, a wider tyre provides a larger contact patch, which improves traction, increases flotation and makes it easier to ride on difficult surfaces like sand, mud, etc. On the other hand, this also increases resistance, as a result, wide tires require more effort to accelerate and keeps the speed worse. So this parameter is usually chosen by manufacturers taking into account the application (see above) and other features of the bike. So, mountain and stunt (BMX) models have wide wheels ( fat bikes are even wider), city ones are narrower, and the most “elegant” are tires on high-speed road bikes.

It is worth saying that, if necessary, “native” tires can be replaced with wider or narrower ones. Of course, too large or too small a width is unacceptable, but there is still a certain freedom of choice here. More information about this can be found in special sources.


In this case, the French tire size marking is implied. It is recorded in the format "700x35C". The first digit determines the outer diameter of the tire in millimeters, the second - the width of the tire, and the letter of the Latin alphabet from "A" to "D" indicates the inner (landing) diameter. "A" is the smallest size, "D" is the largest. The marking is found on tires for road, hybrid and city bikes, but tires for the "miners" are not marked with it.


Tyre model supplied with the bike as standard. Different tires have different purposes and characteristics; knowing the tyre model, you can clarify these points and check how they correspond to your wishes. This is especially important when choosing a machine for serious cycling.

Rim material

The material from which the rims of the wheels supplied as standard with the bicycle are made.

— Steel. The simplest and most common material for rims. Due to its ease of production, it has a low cost, in addition, it is easy to repair — although steel bends relatively easily under strong impacts, it can be leveled just as easily. At the same time, it is characterized by a large weight and sensitivity to corrosion, and the efficiency of rim brakes on steel (see "Front brake", "Rear brake") is relatively low. As a result, steel rims are mainly installed on inexpensive bicycle models.

— Aluminium. As in the case of the frame, we are not talking about pure aluminium, but alloys based on it. All of these materials have a combination of low weight and high strength, as well as greater efficiency when working with rim brakes than steel. Hardness can be called a disadvantage: if the steel bends on impact, then the aluminium alloy is more likely to crack, and the rim will no longer be repairable. However, such a blow must be very strong, and in general, the strength characteristics of aluminium are quite enough for use in bicycles of various types, including and for extreme types of driving (see "Purpose").

— Carbon. It is also carbon fiber — a material based on carbon fiber enclosed in a plastic mass. The main advantage of carbon fiber is extremely low weight combined with high strength characteristics. At the same time, this material holds shock...loads very poorly, it can crack from an average shock, which both aluminium and steel would have suffered without consequences; Carbon fiber is virtually unrepairable. In addition, it is very expensive to manufacture. Yes, and in itself this material has a high price. As a result, carbon is used quite rarely, mainly in high-speed road bikes (see “Purpose”) of the top class.


Varieties of rims are determined by the number of horizontal jumpers in the design.

— Single. The simplest type of rim, similar in cross section to the Latin letter U. It is used mainly in entry-level bicycles.

— Double. Such a rim differs from a single rim by the presence of an additional horizontal bridge. Figuratively speaking, it resembles the same letter U, but with a double bottom. The features of this design are such that it is able to provide increased strength even with less weight than a single one. On the other hand, double rims are more difficult to manufacture and therefore more expensive. They are used primarily in bicycles where high resistance to stress is required — in particular, mountain varieties (see "Intended use") for freeride and cross-country.

— Triple. A further development of the idea of a double rim is a design with two additional horizontal bridges. This provides even greater strength, however, the weight increases quite noticeably. In addition, initially the second jumper was provided to strengthen the side surface, in order to avoid damage during the operation of rim brakes (see "Front brake", "Rear brake"); however, today most powerful brakes are disc brakes, and this problem is losing its relevance. Because triple rims are quite rare.


Model of spokes used in complete bicycle wheels.

This information is unlikely to be needed for simple everyday use. Therefore, the spoke model is indicated mainly in the most advanced bicycles designed for professional use, where the smallest details of equipment can be significant.

Front brake

The type of brake fitted to the front wheel of a bicycle. The first word in the name of the brake indicates the place of application of the braking force, the second — the design feature of the entire braking system.

Mechanical rim(V-brake). Rim brakes are called brakes that work by pressing the brake pads against the wheel rim. The term "mechanical" means that the force is transmitted from the handle to the blocks due to the flexible traction (cable). The common advantages of all rim brakes are simplicity, lightness, low cost, good interchangeability of parts, as well as a minimum load on the hub and spokes. On the other hand, they wear the pads and rim a lot, require periodic adjustments, and lose effectiveness if the rim is dirty, iced or warped. In addition, in general, the power of rim brakes is low. Mechanical traction is characterized, on the one hand, by simplicity and low cost, on the other hand, by somewhat worse efficiency and responsiveness than hydraulic traction. Specifically, V-brakes (“vibrates”) are a type of rim mechanical brakes, in which the relative position of the levers resembles the letter V. In this case, the lower part of each lever is attached to the fork leg, the pads are located in the middle, and the upper parts are connected by a cable, when tensioned, the levers are compressed. Vibrakes are characteristic mainly for mountain models MTB and similar applications (see..."Purpose").

— Mechanical rim (pincer). The features of all rim mechanical brakes are detailed above. This variety is also called U-brake, because. levers with pads are shaped like an inverted U. In accordance with the name, such brakes work on the principle of pincers: the levers are connected by a rotary axis in the middle, and when they are pulled together with a cable from one side, the pads are compressed on the other side. These brakes are considered the most suitable for city and road bikes, as well as BMX (see "Intended use").

— Disk mechanical. In disc systems, braking is carried out by pressing the pads not to the wheel rim, but to a special brake disc rigidly fixed on its axis. The braking force, as in mechanical rims (see above), is transmitted to the pads through a special cable. The main advantages of disc systems are significantly more power than rim systems, as well as better modulation (for modulation, see "Rim hydraulic" above). In addition, they are less sensitive to weather conditions (because the disc is quite high and clogs less than the rim), they easily carry the “eights” on the rims, and the elements of the system wear out more slowly and are not so demanding to adjust. Among the disadvantages are greater weight, high cost, a tendency to overheat, an increase in the load on the spokes and wheel hub, as well as difficulty in repair — the last point is aggravated by the fact that different models of even one manufacturer are often not compatible in terms of spare parts. However, despite all this, disc brakes are quite widely used in extreme riding bikes, especially mid-range and high-end models.

— Disc hydraulic. A variant of disc brakes (see above), in which not a cable is used to transfer force from the handle to the pads, but a hydraulic system — a sealed structure filled with liquid and including a piston system. One of the main advantages of hydraulics is excellent modulation, it allows you to very accurately control the braking force. On the other hand, such a drive is more complicated and more expensive than a mechanical one, and if the circuit is damaged and the hydraulic fluid leaks, the brakes become useless. Therefore, hydraulic systems are used relatively rarely, mainly in professional bicycles.

— Rim hydraulic. A rather specific type of brake that combines the hydraulic principle of operation and the rim arrangement of brake pads. The features of rim brakes are described in detail above in the paragraph “Mechanical rim (V-brake)”, and the features of hydraulics are described in the paragraph “Disk hydraulic”. The same option is used to reduce the cost of hydraulic brakes while maintaining their main advantages — primarily accuracy in controlling the braking force. On the other hand, in terms of efficiency, such brakes are still noticeably inferior to hydraulic disc brakes, and therefore they are rare, in some models of city and touring bikes (see "Purpose").

— Drum. Brakes using a special drum, inside which brake pads are installed; in bicycles, the role of the drum can be played directly by the wheel hub or a special part of the hub. Anyway, the pads are pressed against the drum from the inside, and the entire brake structure is closed. This is one of the main advantages of this option: the mechanism is protected from pollution, external factors such as dirt or snow practically do not affect the effectiveness of the brakes. In addition, the advantages of drum mechanisms include the fact that they practically do not require maintenance, do not wear out the rim and do not lose efficiency when it is bent. On the other hand, such brakes turn out to be quite bulky, and in terms of efficiency they are inferior to rim and even more so disc counterparts. Therefore, this option is found mainly in urban bikes.

— Roller. A variety of drum brakes (see above), in which the pressing of the brake pads to the drum is ensured by a special mechanism — roller. In this case, the brake drum is often performed separately from the bushing. Such solutions were developed as an attempt to combine the advantages of disc and drum brakes in one mechanism, and partly succeeded: roller systems are noticeably more powerful than classic drum brakes, they are well protected from dust and dirt, require virtually no maintenance and work effectively even with a curved rim. On the other hand, the weight, dimensions and price of such brakes turned out to be very significant, they worsen the roll and get quite hot with constant use; and protection against pollution is not as high quality as in drum systems.

Front brake model

Model of the brake used on the front wheel of a bicycle.

Knowing a specific brand of brake system components, you can find technical documentation for it or, for example, study brake reviews on the Internet. For more information about the types of brakes on the front wheel, see "Front brake".

Front rotor

Front rotor.

The front disc brake rotor is a perforated metal plate attached to the wheel hub. The reduction in speed of the bike occurs as a result of the compression of the brake disc by the pads, which are driven by cable tension (in mechanical type systems) or by means of a hydraulic circuit (in hydraulic disc brakes). The diameter of the front rotor can vary from 140mm to 220mm. The higher the number, the more efficient the brake is.

Rear brake

The type of rear brake fitted to the bicycle. Here are the main types of brakes found nowadays:

Mechanical rim. In mechanical brakes, the force required to compress the pads is transmitted from the handle by a rod in the form of a metal cable. Such designs are simpler and cheaper than hydraulic ones, moreover, they are not afraid of damage, but they give worse modulation and responsiveness. Rim brakes are called brakes that work by pressing the brake pads against the wheel rim. In modern bicycles, there are two main varieties of such brakes — V-brake and tick (U-brake) — differing in the arrangement of levers; the former are used mainly in mountain bikes and similar machines, the latter in road bikes and BMX. The main advantages of rim mechanisms are simplicity, lightness, low cost, compatibility with almost any wheels, as well as minimal load on the hub and spokes. On the other hand, such brakes wear the pads and rim a lot, require periodic adjustment, and their effectiveness is relatively low, and it is even more reduced when the rim is dirty, iced or warped.

Disk mechanical. A kind of mechanical brakes (see above), in which the pads are pressed against a special brake disc (rotor) rigidly fixed to the wheel hub during braking. Such brakes are much more efficient than rim brakes, they are not as sensitive to dirt and retain their full performance even with rim curvature. Among the...disadvantages of disk systems, one can note greater weight and cost, increased load on the bushing and spokes, as well as difficulty in repair.

Disc hydraulic. Disc brakes (see above), in which the force on the pads is transmitted not by a cable, as in mechanical systems, but by means of a hydraulic circuit. They are the most advanced option in terms of performance: the use of a disc provides high braking efficiency, and the hydraulics give excellent modulation and allow you to accurately dose the force on the handle. At the same time, such systems are not cheap, and in addition to the general disadvantages of disc brakes, they add sensitivity to damage: a violation of the tightness of the circuit leads to fluid leakage and brake failure.

— Rim hydraulic. A rather specific type of brake that combines the hydraulic principle of operation and the rim arrangement of brake pads. The features of rim brakes are described in detail above in the paragraph “Mechanical rim brakes”, and the features of hydraulics are described in the paragraph “Disk hydraulic”. The same option is used to reduce the cost of hydraulic brakes while maintaining their main advantages — primarily accuracy in controlling the braking force. On the other hand, in terms of efficiency, such brakes are still noticeably inferior to hydraulic disc brakes, and therefore they are rare, in some models of city and touring bikes (see "Purpose").

— Drum. Brakes in which the pads are pressed from the inside to a special drum; in this case, the role of this drum is usually played directly by the wheel hub. One of the advantages of such systems is that almost the entire mechanism is hidden inside the drum and protected from dust and dirt, making it virtually maintenance-free. In addition, drum brakes do not wear out the rim and can work even with a bent wheel. On the other hand, such systems are rather bulky and their effectiveness is lower than that of rim and disc brakes. In addition, the drum brake on the rear wheel can be used with either a single speed cassette or a planetary hub (see below) — these brakes are not compatible with classic multi-star cassette derailleurs.

Roller. A variation of the drum brakes described above, in which the pressing of the pads to the drum is ensured by the so-called. roller mechanism. The drum in this case, usually, is performed separately from the sleeve. Due to this, it was possible to achieve higher efficiency (comparable to disc brakes) while maintaining the main advantages of the drum circuit — unpretentious maintenance, good protection against dirt and independence from rim curvature. However, roller brakes are not cheap, and besides, they have a number of their own drawbacks — in particular, they worsen the roll and make it possible to spin the wheel back when the brake is pressed. Yes, and with classic speed switches, such systems are poorly compatible.

Pedal. In fact, it is a variation of the drum brake described above, controlled not by a handle, but by pedals: braking is carried out by pressing the pedals in the opposite direction. This method of control greatly simplifies the design, eliminating unnecessary handles and rods. At the same time, in some moments it is not very convenient and practical. So, the effectiveness of the brakes is directly dependent on the position of the pedals — for maximum efficiency, they must be horizontal at the time of braking, and in a vertical position, difficulties may arise. In addition, when the chain falls off, the cyclist, in fact, loses the brake. Thus, pedal mechanisms are used relatively rarely — mainly in city bikes that are not designed for particularly high-speed riding.

Rear brake model

Model of the brake used on the rear wheel of a bicycle.

Knowing a specific brand of brake system components, you can find technical documentation for it or, for example, study brake reviews on the Internet. For more information about the types of brakes on the rear wheel, see "Rear brake".

Rear rotor

Rear rotor.

An element of a disc brake system mounted on the hub of the rear wheel of a bicycle. It is to him that the pads are pressed when the brake lever is pressed. The use of a rotor ensures high braking efficiency. And it is higher, the larger the diameter of the rear rotor. Disc rotors are available in sizes 140, 160, 180, 185, 203 and 220 mm.

Front hub model

The model of the hub used in the front wheel of a bicycle.

The hub is the central part in the wheel through which the axis of rotation passes. Features of the behavior of a bicycle depend on its characteristics, in particular, “rolling” (the ability to move by inertia, without pedaling). Knowing the model of the front hub, you can clarify its characteristics according to the manufacturer's documentation, find reviews from other users, etc., in order to determine how this model suits you.

Rear hub model

Model of the hub used in the rear wheel of a bicycle. See Front Hub Model for details.


The number of speeds (gears) provided for in the design of the bicycle. Each transfer has its own so-called gear ratio — in this case it can be described as the number of revolutions that the driven gear (rear, on the wheel) makes in one revolution of the leading gear (associated with the pedals).

Different gear ratios will be optimal for different conditions: for example, high gears provide good speed, but are poorly suited for overcoming obstacles, because. the effort on the pedals increases significantly and the frequency of their rotation decreases. It has been scientifically proven that a cyclist develops maximum power at a cadence of about 80-100 rpm. Thus, the presence in the bike of several speeds allows you to optimally adjust it to different driving modes and features of the tracks in order to provide optimal pedaling force and frequency of their rotation. For example, on smooth asphalt it is best to drive in a high gear, and when overcoming a rise or entering a dirt road, you can lower it in order to effectively overcome resistance.

The number of gears in classic systems is directly related to the number of stars of the system (on the bottom bracket with pedals) and the cassette (on the rear wheel); it can be obtained by multiplying two numbers — for example, 3 stars of the system and 6 on the cassette give 18 gears. However, there is also the so-called planetary hubs — there are stars one at a time, and gear shifting is carried out by a mec...hanism built into the rear hub.

Note that the optimal number of gears depends on the purpose of the bike (see above), and it is not always necessary to have several of them. So, in mountain models, depending on specialization, there can be from 8 to 30 gears, in road ones — within 20-30, and some inexpensive city bikes and most BMXs do not have a gear shift system at all.

Planetary hub

The presence of a planetary hub in the design of a bicycle, more precisely, the rear wheel of a bicycle.

Such a bushing is installed directly on the wheel axle; the name "planetary" describes the type of mechanism located inside. The purpose of such a sleeve is the same as that of the cassette (see below) with several sprockets: it provides gear shifting. At the same time, the cassette itself most often has one asterisk and does not participate in gear shifting (although there are exceptions where the “planetary” is supplemented by a cassette with several asterisks).

The planetary hub has both advantages and disadvantages compared to the classic multi-star cassette. One of the key advantages is the closeness of the mechanism: it is not affected by moisture and pollution, requires virtually no maintenance and, subject to the rules of use, can last a very long time. If gear shifting is carried out only due to the “planetary”, the bike does not need additional rollers for the chain and it wears out less. Also, the chain in such models is constantly in one position, which allows you to install full protection on it (and it protects not only the chain, but also the cyclist's clothes). In addition, the advantages of planetary bushings include ease of adjustment, resistance to falls on the side, ease of adjustment, ease of switching (one switch is enough) and the absence of close and “opposite” gears.

On the other...hand, such systems are much more expensive and heavier than classical switches of similar quality; they are more difficult to repair, make it difficult to replace the wheel and adjust the gear ratios if the initial value of the latter for some reason does not suit the cyclist. Yes, and the gear ratio (the difference in speed between the lowest and highest gears) of the planetaries is noticeably lower; the exception is perhaps expensive professional bushings, and even then not all. This makes climbing steep hills difficult (the gear may not be low enough) and fast driving, where high gears are needed, including when descending. Accordingly, planetary hubs are poorly suited for hilly or rough terrain. However, the gear ratio can be increased by adding a classic derailleur (with a multi-star cassette) to the bike — however, with this addition, many of the original advantages of the "planetary" are lost, such as insensitivity to pollution and a constant position of the chain.


The number of stars (gears) of different sizes in the bicycle system. The system in this case means a carriage with pedals, which provides the transmission of movement to the chain and from it to the rear wheel. The more stars installed in the system, the greater the choice of speeds (for more details, see "Speeds"), however, for a number of reasons, this number almost never exceeds 3. One star is usually placed on single-speed models; the exception is bicycles with a planetary rear hub, in which the shift mechanism is located in the rear wheel and is not connected to the system.

Freewheel cogs

The number of stars (gears) of different sizes in a bicycle cassette. A cassette is a part of the rear hub that interacts directly with the chain, in other words, a gear or a set of gears mounted on the hub. In classical gear shifting systems, the number of gears directly depends on the number of stars in the cassette (for more details, see "Speeds"); a single chainring is used either in single speed bikes or in planetary hubs (see System Stars for more on these).

Freewheel/cassette model

Model of a cassette — a system of rear wheel gears — mounted on a bicycle. Cassettes of different models differ in characteristics and can belong to different classes — from entry-level to professional. Knowing the cassette model, you can get acquainted with its features in more detail (according to official documentation, reviews, user reviews, etc.). This is especially important when choosing a bike for professional cycling.

Crank model

Model of a connecting rod mounted on board a bicycle.

Cranks is a system of levers that connects the pedals and stars of the front carriage. With its help, the energy of the pressure of the cyclist's legs on the pedals is transmitted. Connecting rods are made from hardened steel, aluminium, titanium or carbon fibre and can be solid or hollow inside. Knowing a specific brand of connecting rod, you can find technical documentation for it or, for example, study reviews on this part on the Internet.

Bottom bracket model

Model of the carriage installed on the bike as standard. The bottom bracket is the part that connects the system (front sprockets with pedals) and the frame; roughly speaking — an axle with bearings.

For details on the meaning of the model of a particular part, see "Cassette Model".

Front derailleur

Model of the derailleur (derailer) installed on the carriage with pedals as standard on the bike. For more information on why you need to know the model of a particular bicycle component, see paragraph "Cassette Model".

Rear derailleur

Model of the derailleur (derailer) installed on the rear wheel cassette as standard on the bike. For more information on why you need to know the model of a particular bicycle component, see paragraph "Cassette Model".

Shifter type

Type of shifters — devices that control gear shifting — installed on a bicycle. To date, the following types of shifters are used:

— Trigger. The design of this type is based on the use of 1 or 2 levers, as well as (sometimes) buttons located in close proximity to the hands of the cyclist. Trigger shifters can have different designs with varying degrees of convenience (usually, this is directly related to the price category of the device), located above or below the steering wheel, however, a number of common features are characteristic of all such models. Their main advantages are the traditional design and comfort when holding the steering wheel — the shifters are located outside the handles (grips) and do not affect convenience. In addition, they are quite simple in design and installation. On the other hand, this type also has a number of disadvantages. Thus, the presence of protruding parts increases the risk of equipment failure or injury to the cyclist in an accident. In many models, especially the low-cost level, in some cases, you have to take your hand off the steering wheel to change gear, which can lead to loss of control. In addition, shifting gears more than 2-3 "clicks" per press in trigger shifters is somewhat difficult and requires skill. However, in most cases, these disadvantages do not play a decisive role, and this type of levers is by far the most popular.

— Grip shift. By design, the grip shift is somewhat reminiscent of motorcyc...le gas regulators: part of the handle is made movable, and gear shifting is carried out by turning it in one direction or another. Since the grip shift rings are actually combined with handles (grips), you don’t need to remove your hand from the steering wheel to control the gears — just move it a little to the side, and you can switch speed (and in some cases you can even keep your hands on the rings all the time). Such systems are devoid of protruding parts, which increases reliability and safety. Another advantage over triggers is the ease of shifting gears to any number of speeds. The main disadvantage of this type is the increased risk of accidentally shifting gears on a difficult section of the track, when you have to hold on tightly to the grips (especially with large palms and short grips) — you can accidentally turn the shifter, which is fraught with a sharp shift, breaking the chain from the sprockets and loss of controllability. In addition, contact with water or dirt on the ring can lead to slippage of the hand when working with gears, and the rings themselves increase the dimensions of the steering wheel and for some may cause inconvenience in the grip.

— Dual control. An original system that combines the control of brakes and gears in one lever — the brake lever. In this case, braking is carried out by moving towards you, and gear shifting is carried out by shifting up or down. The advantages of such a system are the constancy of the grip of the steering wheel — 2 fingers are enough to control both the brakes and the gears. At the same time, dual control shifters are quite complex in design, as a result, they are expensive and poorly compatible with “non-native” brakes and switches. And the ergonomics of such systems is very ambiguous, ease of use largely depends on the individual tastes of the cyclist. Therefore, this type of shifters is rather uncommon.

Shifter model

The model of the shifters (see “Shifter type”) that are fitted to the bike as standard. For more information on why you need to know the model of a particular bicycle component, see paragraph "Cassette Model".

Handlebar type

— Straight. This category includes all handlebars that do not have bends in the vertical plane — in other words, they look straight when viewed from the front. Some of these models may have a curve visible from above. These handlebars are convenient to place additional equipment, and in general they are well suited for various types of bicycles. Due to this, this variety is very common.

— Curved. A variety of handlebars in which the pipe between the handles (grips) has bends in the vertical plane — in other words, the grips are located above the point where the handlebar is attached to the stem (see "Adjusting the handlebar stem"). Such steering wheels are designed for a high seating position and are poorly compatible with an additional body kit. Therefore, they are found predominantly in city bikes (see "Intended use"), where you do not need to "bend your back" and use special equipment, as well as in children's and teenage models (see "Age group").

— Highway. As the name suggests, this handlebar is designed primarily for road bikes (see "Intended Use"), where speed is of the essence. The most common type of such rudders is the so-called "ram's horns", designs with characteristic downward-curved handles. This allows you to change the grip and fit while riding. So, if good visibility is important, and speed is not critical, you can ride with a high seating position, holding on to the transverse horizontal part of the steering wheel; and at high...speed, you can lean forward by holding the "horns" — this improves aerodynamics, that is, reduces air resistance, and makes the ride easier. There are other varieties of road wheels — for example, the so-called cutting. They have a pair of tubes placed forward, and special stands on the steering wheel itself — you can put your elbows on these stands, and put your hands forward. However, regardless of type, all road handlebars have a low landing. In addition, they are usually not compatible with standard handlebar equipment (shifters, brake levers, etc.) and require specialized components.

— Butterfly. The name of this type is due to the characteristic shape resembling the wings of a butterfly; also such rudders are known as "tracking". They are considered the most versatile, because. without additional adjustments provide about 3 – 4 options for the position of the hands, with varying degrees of inclination of the body of the rider. However the "butterflies" are expensive.

Adjustable threaded stem

The ability to adjust the height and angle of the steering wheel on the bike. The stem is the part of the handlebar that connects the horizontal tube to the handlebar post that is vertical.

Depending on the features of the stem, the cyclist’s position and the specifics of control change — for example, by lowering the stem, you can achieve a lower fit and less air resistance (which is important at high speed), but the bike’s manoeuvrability will deteriorate somewhat. Accordingly, the offset adjustment allows you to optimally adjust this parameter to certain conditions. At the same time, adjustable stems are more complex, more expensive, and are considered less durable than non-adjustable stems.


Features of the handlebar stem (see " Stem Adjustment ") installed on the bike. Here, both the offset model and its individual characteristics, most often the length and diameter, can be indicated. The stem itself can be either a separate part or an integral part of the steering wheel itself (the so-called integrated stem); the latter option is convenient in that the steering wheel cannot be skewed (unless broken), respectively, there is no need for centering.

As for the parameters, the rider’s landing depends on the length — the longer the takeaway, the more you will have to lean forward (ceteris paribus); strength and resistance to loads are directly related to the diameter; See “Cassette Model” for details on why the model name may be needed. It is worth noting that these parameters are important primarily for keen enthusiasts who pay attention to the smallest details in the characteristics of the machine; for most users, even advanced ones, such trifles are unlikely to be useful.

Handlebar model

The model of the handlebar supplied as standard with the bike. For more information on why you need to know the model of a particular bicycle component, see paragraph "Cassette Model".


Model and/or some characteristics of the steering column of a bicycle. This information is indicated mainly for high-end cars equipped with advanced steering columns. Additional data about the column is unlikely to be needed for a quiet everyday ride, but it can be useful for professionals for whom every detail in the bike's equipment is important.

Max range

The maximum range of an e-bike (see "Application") is the maximum distance that it can be ridden using the electric motor on a single battery charge.

Usually, the characteristics indicate the range at the most economical way to use the battery: in the pedal assist mode (see "Operating modes") and at a relatively low speed. Accordingly, in fact, this parameter may turn out to be lower than the claimed one, especially if you drive in full electric mode. Nevertheless, in terms of power reserve, it is quite possible to evaluate and compare various models with each other.

Note that it makes sense to specifically look for a model with a power reserve of more than 50 km if long trips are planned without recharging along the way. For episodic rides, you can pay attention to cars with less battery life — they are simpler and cheaper.

Battery capacity

The capacity of the battery that the e-bike is equipped with (see "Application"), expressed in ampere-hours.

The battery capacity directly affects the operating time on a charge and, accordingly, the power reserve. However, in fact it hardly makes sense to evaluate these parameters by the number of ampere-hours. Firstly, the actual battery life will depend not only on the characteristics of the battery, but also on the power of the engine (which determines the power consumption of the machine). Secondly, the actual amount of energy stored in the battery depends not only on the capacity in ampere-hours, but also on the rated voltage; a more reliable unit in this sense is watt-hours, see Battery Capacity below for more details. So when choosing, it is better to focus not so much on the number of ampere-hours, but on the power reserve directly claimed by the manufacturer.

Battery capacity

The capacity of the battery that the e-bike is equipped with (see "Application"), expressed in watt-hours.

The main modern unit of capacity is the ampere-hour, but this designation is not entirely reliable: the actual capacity of the battery is determined not only by ampere-hours, but also by the operating voltage. In fact, this means that two batteries with the same Ah and different voltages will have different actual capacities. In order to take this nuance into account, the designation in watt-hours was introduced: it is as reliable as possible, in terms of capacity in Wh, you can compare batteries with any nominal voltage. In this case, Wh can be converted to Ah and vice versa using a special formula if the battery voltage is known.

See "Battery Capacity" above for details on capacity in general.

Motor power

Power of the motor installed in the e-bike (see "Application"). Models with all-wheel drive (see below) equipped with two engines usually list the total power.

In general, the engine is selected by the manufacturer in such a way as to provide a certain maximum speed and mode of operation. So when choosing, you should pay primarily to these characteristics, and engine power can be considered more as a reference parameter. If we talk about differences in power, then a more powerful motor, on the one hand, allows you to develop higher speeds, accelerate faster and overcome steeper climbs. In addition, high power, by definition, is needed for full-fledged electric traction (see "Operating mode"). On the other hand, an increase in power significantly affects the price, weight, and most importantly, the energy consumption of the motor; the latter, in turn, requires the use of capacious batteries. Modern electric bicycles can be divided according to this indicator into two categories — up to 250 W inclusive and more than 250 W.

Max speed

The maximum speed that the e-bike can reach (see "Application").

The specific meaning of this parameter depends on the supported modes of operation (see below). If the machine has a full-fledged electric traction mode, the maximum speed is given at the maximum speed of the electric motor. If only pedaling assistance is supported, then this paragraph indicates the speed that is guaranteed to be kept on it for an unlimited time without applying excessive effort; in some areas you can go faster, but for a long time it will not be possible to maintain this mode.

Most modern e-bikes have a top speed of up to 25 km/h, but there are also faster models.

Full charge time

The time required to charge the ebike battery (see "Application") from zero to 100%. This parameter allows you to estimate how long breaks you will have to take to replenish your energy supply. However, even in the slowest models, this time does not exceed 8 hours — this allows, for example, to drive during the day and put the battery on charge from evening to morning.


The type of drive provided in the design of an electric bicycle (see "Application"), in other words, the place where the electric motor is installed and where the traction from it comes from.

Carriage. Drive directly to the carriage with pedals. Bicycles with this design only support pedal assist mode (see Operation Mode). Their advantages include simplicity of design, the absence of extra wires going to the wheels, and optimal weight distribution (the electric motor does not weigh down the wheel hub).

Rear. Rear wheel drive. Almost all bikes with such a drive support full electric traction. This option is more rational in terms of weight distribution than front-wheel drive; also its advantages include the fact that the traction wheel does not change regardless of the mode in which the bike is running — both the pedals and the electric motor pull the rear wheel. Of the disadvantages of the rear-wheel drive, one can only name a relatively low stability and an increased tendency to skid; however, this is true of any classic (non-electric) bike, so this feature is nothing new.

Front. Front wheel drive. Like the rear, it usually means support for full electric traction (see "Operating modes"). The key advantage of this option is to increase stability: the front wheel pulls the entire bike behind it, minimizing the likelihood of skidding i...n turns. On the other hand, the electric motor on the front hub increases the overall weight of the wheel and increases the effort when turning the steering wheel; and the cable from the battery has to be made quite long. Thus, this option is much less common than rear-wheel drive.

Full. The drive is immediately on both wheels — both front and rear. Two electric motors, usually, have a rather high total power, which has a positive effect on both the speed and the vehicle's patency. On the other hand, such a design is expensive, and the real need for it is relatively rare. Therefore, there are relatively few all-wheel drive electric bicycles; many of them are fat bikes (see "Application") or devices of a similar design, designed specifically for increased cross-country ability.

Battery arrangement

Location of the battery in the e-bike (see "Application").

Framed (hidden). Placing the battery inside the bike frame. The advantage of this installation is that the frame provides additional protection for the battery. The main disadvantage is that the frame has to be made quite large, which accordingly affects the weight of the machine. In addition, access to the battery with this installation is difficult, removing it, if necessary, is quite difficult.

On the frame. Installing the battery directly on the frame — usually above the down tube. It is this installation method that is the most popular nowadays and is considered the most convenient: the battery is located in a space that remains unused when using a bicycle, and does not interfere with installing various additional equipment on the car (headlights, boots, etc.). In addition, with this placement, the additional weight is distributed in an optimal way; and the battery itself, unlike installation in the frame (see above), remains easily accessible and, if necessary, can be removed without problems.

On the boot. Installing the battery on the boot — in a container under the boot platform or in a special case suspended from the platform. This option is quite functional in itself, besides, it automatically means that the bike is equipped with a rack. On the other hand, not every...car needs a boot; and the presence of a massive battery in the area of the rear wheel complicates the transportation of goods (especially heavy ones).

Under the saddle. Installing the battery under the saddle — usually on the seat tube of the frame from the side of the rear wheel. Such an installation puts forward some specific requirements for the frame design, so it is found mainly in rather non-standard varieties of bicycles — in particular, fat bikes (see "Application") with a lower frame, as well as compact urban models with small wheel diameters and a special frame configuration.


Additional equipment supplied with the bike.

Wings. Protective devices in the form of shields that are installed over the wheels and protect the cyclist and others from water and dirt flying from the wheels while riding. Usually, they are made removable — in case you need to minimize the weight of the car.

Saddle with springs. A saddle equipped with springs that make it softer and provide cushioning. Note that soft spring-loaded saddles are designed mainly for a calm, leisurely ride — for high-speed bikes (including advanced road bikers), narrow hard saddles are considered more suitable.

Shield on the chain. Protective shield covering the bicycle chain. Note that the dimensions and design of such a shield can be different: in some models it covers the entire upper section of the chain from the front to the rear sprocket, in others it protects only the front sprocket itself from the outside. Anyway, the main task of such a device is to protect the chain from foreign objects, primarily the edges of the cyclist's clothing. The shield can be made removable — in case you need to reduce weight.

Footboard. A device in the form of a small folding pin that provides additional support. With a footrest, the bike does not need to be leaned on a pole, wall, fence, etc. — it can be placed vertically on an...y relatively flat surface. Note that many bikes without a kickstand allow you to buy and install it separately.

Peggy. Special devices installed on the axles of "stunt" bikes — BMX or mountain bikes of the corresponding specialization (see "Application"). Pegs look like extensions of axes pointing in both directions. The standard size of one such "continuation" is 11 cm in length and 4 cm in diameter. They are used for a variety of acrobatic routines, ranging from riding on pegs to sliding on edges, railings, etc.

Boot. A classic bike rack is a platform for carrying various cargoes, mounted above the rear wheel. It is found mainly in city bikes (see "Application"), as well as some relatively simple mountain and road models. Separately, we note that it is at least highly discouraged to carry passengers on the boot, and in many countries it is expressly prohibited by traffic rules.

Front boot. Boot (see above), located above the front wheel. The advantage of this arrangement is that the transported luggage is constantly in front of the cyclist's eyes. On the other hand, the front rack is usually attached to the steering wheel and turns with it; thus, the additional load can significantly complicate management. Therefore, this feature is relatively rare, usually as an addition to the traditional (rear) boot; the exception is tourism models (see "Application").

Basket on the steering wheel. A basket for transporting various goods, installed in front of the steering wheel, above the front wheel; a kind of analogue of the front boot described above. At the same time, on the one hand, the basket is more massive, on the other hand, it is better suited for transporting large items or numerous small items. In addition, the cargo on the boot needs to be additionally secured, while this is not always required for the basket.

Signal / call. A bell or other sound signal — for example, a horn — usually mounted on the steering wheel, at the cyclist's hand. This equipment is very useful for warning other road users of an approaching bicycle. And in some countries, the presence of a sound signal is mandatory according to traffic rules.

Lighting equipment. In this case, the presence of a headlight, a taillight, and in some cases, both at once, may be implied; specific configuration should be specified separately. Anyway, such equipment is indispensable for riding at night: it makes the cyclist visible to other road users, and the headlight also illuminates the road. In many countries, traffic rules expressly prohibit driving at night without lights.

Bottle holder. Dedicated water bottle holder, usually mounted on the frame. It is more convenient to carry a supply of water with you on such a mount than to keep a bottle in a backpack, bag, on the boot, etc. Some bike models with this function are immediately equipped with a bottle, for others it needs to be purchased separately.

Pump. The presence of the pump in the delivery set eliminates the need to buy it separately; in addition, the “native” pump initially fits the existing mounts, while problems may arise with a third-party one. Note that most often the kit comes with relatively simple and compact hand pumps; they are not designed for large volumes of work, but they can quite cope with everyday tasks like pumping a flat tyre.

On-board computer

The presence of an on-board computer in the design of the bike.

This function is found mainly in electric bikes and is almost never used in models that do not have an electric motor. The computer itself is a control unit with a display and a set of sensors installed on the machine that collect various data and transmit them to the control unit. Thanks to this, the cyclist can receive various additional information — from speed and distance traveled to calorie counting and evaluation of the effectiveness of the training. And some computers are even capable of synchronizing with a smartphone and transferring data to a special application, receiving information from the smartphone’s GPS module for navigation, etc. added convenience.

Saddle model

The model of the saddle supplied as standard with the bike. For more information on why you need to know the model of a particular bicycle component, see p. "Cassette Model".

Pedal model

Model of the pedals supplied with the bicycle. See Cassette Model for details on why you might need the model name of a particular part.

Chain model

Model of the chain supplied as standard with the bike. For details on the value of the Model parameter for any part, see Cassette Model
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